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Clay Modelling 
FOR Schools 











A useful scheme of liandwork, every part of 
which can be done in the ordinary classroom 
wiXh a minimum amount of apparatus. The 
models are not too technical, but require in 
their making useful hands and a trained eye. 
In crown 8vo, 84 pp., 15 plates and 33 diagrams. 
OS. net. 


By \V. S. Bartlett, H. Wainwright and W. G. 
Glock. With an introduction by F. H. Hay- 
ward, M.A., B.Sc, D.Lit., F.C.P. 
In demy Svo, cloth, 128 pp., with 27 full-page 
plates and upwards of 100 other illustrations. 
2s. 9d. net. 

PENCIL DRAWING. By Herbert A Rankin. 
Addressed to teachers learning the art of teach- 
ing drawing. This manual should prove of 
great assistance in removing practical difficulties. 
In demy Svo, cloth gilt, 220 pp., with 153 
illustrations. 7s. 6d. net. 

RURAL HANDICRAFTS. By George F. Johnson. 
A useful book for elementary schools, for evening 
continuation classes, and agricultural institu- 
tions where it is desired to teach the craft side 
of rural occupations. 

In tlcmv 8vo, cloth, with over 150 illustrations, 
133 pp. 3s. 6d. net. 




I 71/c 









In this attempt to inquire into the possibiHties of Clay ModelUng 
as an instrument of education in our schools, it has been deemed 
advisable to arrange the sequence of work in periods in accordance 
with the usual grading of our pupils : thus the book should provide 
a progressive scheme of study, and should be easily referred to 
when guidance upon any particular aspect is needed. 

The course is made applicable to the preparatory, junior, inter- 
mediate and senior grades respectively of our Primary Schools, 
as well as to the lower and middle forms of Secondary Schools, 
while certain useful chapters have been added which should make 
the book of value to teachers, students in training, and candidates 
qualifying for the City and Guilds General Handwork Certificate. 
But since it is neither possible nor desirable to prescribe work 
equally applicable to every condition of school, the schemes have 
been drafted fairly wide, so that they may be suggestive, even 
though not directly suitable. 

Grateful mention is made of the enthusiasm of both scholars and 
staff of " John Gulson " School, whose hearty co-operation has 
assisted materially the bringing of the book into its present form. 
Special thanks are due to Mr. W. E. Warner, Mus.Bac, for preparing 
the line drawings ; to Mr. James E. Snell, who has superintended 
the execution of most of the work shown in the illustrations of the 
senior grades ; to Master Fred. Winterbourne, one of my scholars, 
for taking the photographs ; and to Mr. R. N. Sharman, who per- 
suaded me to publish the book, and kindly undertook to see it 
through the Press. 



January, 1921. 



PREFACE .... ..... iX 



The Child — The Material — The Method of Approach — Equipment 
— The Attitude of the Teacher — First Experiences — Keeping 
Shop — Red Letter Days — The Size of the Modelling. 



DEPARTMENT ........ 9 

The Attitude of the Teacher — Literature — Modelling the Human 
Form — The Child's Make-believe — What to Prescribe — History 
and Geography — Natural Objects for Reproduction — Co-operation 
— Accessory Media. 


JUNIOR GRADE ........ 17 

Formal Modelling (First, Second and Third terms) — Free Model- 
ling — Free Historical Modelling — Geographical Modelling — Litera- 
ture — Seasonable Studies. 



First Term : Formal Modelling — Object Modelling — Correct 
Method — Nature Forms. Second Term : Formal Modelling — 
Object Modelling — Figures and Letters — Nature Forms. Third 
Term : Formal Modelling — Object Modelling — Revision — Free 
Modelling — Historical Modelling. 


INTERMEDIATE GRADE B . . . . . . .54 

The Storage of Objects for Study — Building up the Models — 
Correct Methods of Work — First Term : Formal Modelling — 
Object Modelling. Second Term : Formal Modelling — Object 
Modelling. Third Term : Formal Modelling — Free Modelling — 
Historical Modelling — Geographical Modelling — Observation and 
Modelling from Memory. 



SENIOR GRADE A . . . . . . . .67 

The Slab or Base — Nature Studies — Illustrative Modelling — 
Geographical Modelling. 


SENIOR GRADE B ........ 89 

Mechanical Construction of the Slab — Building Forms in Full 
Relief, {a) Common Objects, {b) Natural Objects, (c) Creative 
Forms — Historical Modelling : Foot Gear, Head Gear, Shields- — 


SENIOR GRADE C . . . . . . . .112 

Object Modelling — Low-Relief Modelling-^Tools in Full Relief — 
Studies from Life — Modelling in Relief from Pictures. 


CLAY 122 

Good Working Condition — Storage and Distribution. 


PLASTER CASTING . . . . . . .127 

Plaster of Paris — Taking Plaster Casts of Clay Models, Squeeze 
Mould, Piece Mould, Gelatine Mould — Casting from Round 
Objects — Casting Natural Leaves. 





The term preparatory is applied to work done in our Infants' 
Schools by children up to seven years of age, and this we call 
preparatory advisedly, since both in its character and aim it should 
be that only. 

No one, nowadays, looks for very definite results from infant 
scholars ; in fact, the sum and substance of their education should 
be regarded only as a prelude to the time when increased physical 
•strength and a wider mental outlook shall enable them to profit 
by more formal training. 

As for the effectiveness of Clay Modelling as a means of educating 
the children of our Preparatory Schools, there cannot be two opinions. 
The children themselves show its suitability in their mudpie making 
and sand-castle building. As an occupation, therefore, affording 
-easy access for the teacher's initial appeals, it must receive careful 
and sympathetic consideration, while in studying the subject due 
attention must always be given to the child's outlook, to the uses 
and limitations of the material, and to the best methods of approach. 


In the first place let us consider the child with whom we have 
to reckon. Here he is — a human organism always seeking some 
fresh activity and hardly still even when asleep ! Though we may 
firmly believe that it is with his intellectual powers we are primarily 
concerned, yet are we not authoritatively informed that the open 
sesame to these powers lies in his physical experiences, chiefly in 
the work of his hands ? 

" There is an intimate connection between the brain development 
•of the child and his manual and motor activity. In the young 
•child the instinct for movement of all kinds is strong, and he begins 
to work vigorously with the hands as soon as control is gained of 
the muscles. . . . The possibility of highly skilled movement of 


the hand depends upon a highly-developed nervous system co- 
ordinated in the brain and in its turn the skilled service of the 
hand strengthens and extends the function of the brain." 
{Manual Instruction in Public Elementary Schools.) 

An influential and one of the most important parts of the human 
body is, then, the hand. Not that man alone among the higher 
animals can boast of the possession of this organ, but a hand as 
highly developed as his is not to be found elsewhere. Apes are 
able to grasp branches and climb with marvellous agility, but their 
prehensive power becomes insignificant when compared with the 
innumerable capabilities of the human hand. 

The special features giving man this pre-eminence are the position 
and power of the thumb. The ability to hold the thumb in a 
position opposite to that of the fingers enables the use of a tool, 
and it is not too much to affirm that this fact has rendered the 
status of the human much higher than that of any beast. 

No other creature can fashion and use a tool especially adapted 
to a definite purpose as he can. No other creature can show a record 
of invention and construction as that realized by the human race. 

As soon as a child enters the world he has the power of grasping 
and clinging by encircling an object with thumb and fingers. This 
faculty is retained throughout life. Given a foreign body in the 
palm of the hand, the natural reflex action is the immediate closing 
of thumb and fingers upon it, and then the investigation of its 
properties by the act of squeezing. 


The yielding nature of a plastic substance invites and encourages 
such a method of inquiry and acquaintance, and thus the hand 
tends to press and squeeze, first by instinct, and then for the sake 
of the satisfaction derived. And what a succession of surprises 
awaits the investigator ! One of the greatest pleasures a little 
child derives when handling such material is afforded by the protean 
-character of the plastic body in his hand. A squeeze here, com- 
pression there, and what an endless variety of form is possible ! 
Shapes seem to evolve at his slightest whim. 

Clay is one of the fundamentals of this solid earth of ours, is 
widely diffused, easily reached, and one that has largely entered 
into the economy of our race from all times, and under widely 
different circumstances. Clay is one of the few materials on which 
has been preserved a record of by gone events, and by means of 
which we are able to trace the marvellous evolution of things ; 
and this is especially true of the advance of our artistic sensibilities 
which can be followed from the earliest and crudest piece of 
pottery up to the greatest triumph in ceramic art. 

The child shows the direction in which the race is moving, 
while the child nature in its development seems to be recapitulating 


the great epochs that have marked the gradual evolution of our 
civilization. It is not surprising, therefore, that all children delight 
at some time in their lives in making mudpies and revel in the 
fascinating construction of those wonderful castles on the sea shore. 


We have next to consider how best to introduce the child to 
our schemes so that the most may be effected by them. It is surely 
eminently wise to seek a means naturally and invitingly thrown 
open to us, rather than to force our ideas upon unwilling listeners. 
Fortunately there is no lack of authoritative guidance upon this 
point, as is shown by the following quotations. 

" How shall these helpless and ignorant yourg ones become strong 
and wise ? Partly through physical development . . . but chiefly 
through Nature's jolly old nurse, Play, who charms children into 
using every power as it develops, and into finding out everything 
possible about their environment from the heavens above to the 
earth beneath." — (Kirkpatrick.) 

" Play may be regarded as Nature's method of Education." — 

Again, Kirkpatrick speaks of school time as " the playtime of 
life." In Dr. Stanley Hall's opinion " play is motor poetry. Too 
early distinction between play and work should not be taught. 
Education, perhaps, should really begin with directing childish 
sports aright." 

Froebel thought play " the purest and most spiritual activity 
of childhood, the germinal leaves of all later life." 

Says Bainton, " the measure of the value of work is the amount 
of play there is in it, and the measure of the value of play is the 
amount of work there is in it." 

Groos well says that " children are young because they play, 
and not vice versa," and he might have added, men grow old because 
they stop playing and not conversely, " for play is, at bottom, 
growth, and at the top of the intellectual scale it is the eternal 
type of research from sheer love of truth." 

Without doubt then, ample and sufficient scope for play ought 
to be found in all our schemes of education, whether initial or 
progressive. Especially when one regards the span of human 
existence, with all its attendant worries and anxieties concerning 
the bread which perisheth, what ought school time to be if not the 
playtime of life ? On the other hand, when we consider in a narrower 
sense, that school time is not an existence in itself or a period apart 
from the rest of life, it is not possible to exclude other considerations 
entirely and give play as full scope in the higher classes as in the 
lower. If our life is to be a purposeful one, then preparation for 
life must begin somewhere, even during these happy school days, 
though the change should be made gradually. 

W. P. A 


From the beginning of school hfe, then, there should undoubtedly 
be play, free and unrestrained, without the slightest thought or 
reference to the future — absolute self-abandonment in the pure 
joy of living and in the exquisite appreciation of the present. 
But, later on, when the child-nature craves to be doing something 
definite and not only of the character of make-believe, we may 
begin to look for the first indications of the child's work in the world 
of actualities. He delights to gather round him other and wider 
interests — constructive and artistic — and he is content to restrict 
his play. At the outset, however, we must consider our medium 
in the light of play, of mere recreation and all the pleasure it can 
bring to the eye and the imagination. 


This at once raises the question as to what we should model, 
how and with what tools. This threefold yet brief question may be 
answered with equal brevity, thus — anything, anyhow, and without 
tools. A three-ply modelling board, costing very little, is all the 
equipment each child needs beyond the ball of clay. 


The most difficult problem of all is to impress effectively upon 
the teacher the importance of a right appreciation of her attitude 
towards the child's play. She is not to be a tyrannical directress, 
else the children do not play naturally and freely, but become mere 
automata, moving hither and thither at her will. To play her 
part truly she should become one of them, share their experiences, 
enter into all their little troubles, and enjoy their pleasures, as the 
big, wise friend who leads them aright and brings them joyously 
along many a pleasant path to the end of the afternoon ! This 
attitude of the teacher is essential to the success of the scheme. 
She is not to teach clay modelling to her children. There should be 
no prescribed syllabus with its chosen objects for all to model, 
and no cut and dried programme of exercises to be worked through 
so that progress may be estimated. 

What interest has a little child in any of your forms, the sphere, 
the cylinder, or others of their tribe ? He sees the clay and hisfingers 
itch to be in it. Well, let him ! He may safely be trusted with it, 
for it appeals so strongly to his natural instincts that the multitude 
of forms he wishes to make leaves him no time for pure mischief. 
Here before him is work and opportunity : something to do and 
something with which to do it ! Self-directed activity may be 
given full scope here. The children should play with it freely, 
and the teacher, too, forget herself for the time being and enter 
heartily into the fun. 



But where shall we find common ground, where look for some 
point of contact for our mutual play ? In the nursery, of course, 
whence these little tots have but just now come ! The nursery 
rhymes, well-known to every one, will prove an admirable vantage 
ground from which to start, and since we have already alluded to 
the mudpie instinct, let us begin with these two facts, and so 
order our game. 

" Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, baker's man. 
Make me a cake as fast as you can." 

How the little hands instinctively give action to the words ! 
Can you check them ? They will pursue the story to the final 
" tossing in the oven " without a pause. 

Let them have the clay and again make a cake, this time some- 
what slower yet still " as fast as you can." Never mind the method 
so long as the cake is forthcoming : the little fingers are bound to 
follow the correct technique if only rhyme and action go hand 
in hand, for the words themselves give admirable directions. " Pat- 
a-cake " flattens the clay between their hands, and " making " 
rounds it on the board between the upraised palms. " Nicking and 
pricking and marking with T " are executed by various strokes 
with the index finger, and so the cake is tossed into the oven " for 
teacher and me." 

What a commonsense description of all the baker's actions ! 
Why need we worry ourselves about methods of manipulation, 
so long as the children have ready to hand such sensible rules to 
guide them ? Then let them continue their play so long as the 
supply of clay holds out, and what a splendid ovenful there will be ! 

So the subsequent lessons will provide scope for cake-making 
just as their fancy suggests — those they like best for tea, those they 
expect to find at their school treats and birthday parties, and those 
they specially delight to make when they help mother with her 
cooking, etc. Some such forms as those of Fig. 1 (page 6) may 
result ; if you get others so much the better. 

The little fingers are not likely to tire of this occupation for 
some considerable time, but to continue our course and provide 
fresh interest before the first palls, let us proceed with other nursery 
rhymes of an allied character. True, they may not offer the same 
chance for action, but provide, instead, another equally fascinating 
delight — representation by dramatic show. 

Quite a number are at one's disposal, e.g., Simple Simon met a 
pieman, Little Jack Horner, Sing a song of sixpence, 
" A hippety, hippety hop, heigho ! 
Away to the baker's shop we go," and so on. 
Here the point of interest centres round a much larger form— 
a pie or a bun. The children know all about fruit pies, pork and 

2— (1017) 


other meat pies. Set them to work on these, and while they are 
busy, let the teacher prepare some such simple dramatization as 
that shown in Fig. 2. 

One Dutch doll — or more as the case may be — costs but a trifle 
and is quite easily dressed in a suitable costume of coloured tissue 
secured with a spot or two of gum, or else it may be fitted out 
with stuff garments. Make a rough bed of clay, and on it set the 
dolls in position. The illustration clearly shows how the story 
should be enacted, but, of course, it will not prevent the little folk 
themselves from acting the parts also. It is most desirable they 

Fig. 1. 

should, for such an opportunity gives confidence and practice in 
oral expression. Each in turn may bring out his pic and be Jack 
Horner, or two of them can enact Simple Simon. 

Similar methods should continue to be employed so long as the 
stock of suitable nursery rhymes permits. But what is the next 
step, the natural sequel to this experience ? It seems to me but 
a very short step to " keeping shop." What little child is there who 
does not enter most heartily into the excitements of so delightful 
a game ? 


So to-day we will stock a baker's shop, and there shall be loaves 
and tarts, batch-cakes and buns, biscuits and cakes in abundance. 
Each child shall then be, in turn, shopkeeper or customer, and go 
to make purchases for afternoon tea, or to do the weekly marketing. 
This latter scheme may involve the setting up of a grocer's store. 
To do this we shall want bags of many things — flour, sugar, tea ; 


tins or packets of cocoa, mustard, starch or chocolates ; besides 
cheese, bacon, butter and eggs. Here is scope for many lessons, 
spread over many weeks. What fun ! Yes, but what scope for 
oral composition and number, in addition to handwork ! 

Subsequently we may feel the necessity for dealing in fruits 
and vegetables, or some other of the common everyday commodities. 
The preparation of these will provide plenty of work and enjoyment, 


Fig. 2. 

and during it all the children are acquiring a thorough knowledge 
of the material we wish them to manipulate. 


These will come round with considerable frequency, especially 
if the mistress is on the look out for favourable opportunities for 
introducing work to the children. Variation should be the keynote ; 
the difficulties apparent to the grown-up need not be anticipated 
here. So long as they are not insuperable objections to the children's 
play they may well be ignored. All we seek is a two-fold advantage 
— the child's interest in the subject, and his continual manual 
(not to mention his mental) employment. 


Christmas with its gifts, decorations and festivities ; Easter and 
Easter eggs ; Spring bulbs, buds and flowers ; Summer holidays 
and the finds we make on the seashore, or in the country ; Autumn 
and its harvest ; fruits and winter's store for the birds, etc ; 
Guy Fawkes and fireworks ; birthdays and the presents we give 
and receive — -all these should provide enough favourable bases for 
the play activities of our little children in the kindergarten. 


It is necessary before leaving this aspect of the work to emphasize 
one very important point, viz., the size of the modelling. It should 
never be of the small, trifling kind. Broad treatment and general 
resemblance must be our aim. 

If a cottage loaf be required, the little fingers may not be able to 
make a very large one, but the two halves, modelled separately, 
and put together, should then be quite as large as a Jaffa orange. 
The danger is not that the work is likely to be too large. It is 
when we come to model peas and currants and such small things 
that caution is demanded. If such minute examples must be 
introduced, either make them as large as marbles, or ruthlessly 
exclude the modelling of them. Play will not be hindered, for the 
actual things can be made use of. 

Aim to employ all the muscles of the hand, the larger muscles 
especially, leaving the use of the delicate finger-tips and all fine 
adjustments to be acquired fully when the children are approaching 
the upper forms of the senior school. 

If these little children succeed in producing the broad, general 
features of the thing they attempt to model, so that it satisfies 
their requirements and fits in with their play, they will have done 
sufliciently well at this stage ; and all the experience they are 
acquiring will form an admirable foundation, well and truly laid, 
upon which some fitting structure can be expected to rear itself in 
due course, but at a much later stage. 



Between the two divisions of the preparatory stage, no great 
hiatus ought to be permitted. The chief features of the work of 
the lower division will continue to characterize that of the upper. 
No hard and fast prescribed set of models for everyone to work 
through will be found here. Freedom quite as ample and just as 
unfettered is still the heritage of every scholar : opportunities for 
play will still occur, just as naturally and as frequently as heretofore, 
if they are intelligently sought. The more serious aspect of model- 
ling is not yet considered : what art is inculcated must be so by 
stealth, as it were, and hence will manifest itself in the atmosphere 
of the teaching which must be created by the attitude of the teacher, 
her ways of presentation and co-operation, and the character of 
the results she is willing to accept. 

Plenty of scope for play may be found in the subjects usually 
figuring in the curricula of our Infants' Schools. Instead of the 
nursery rhymes, those offering a wider field for thought and work 
will be suggested, while in the top class fairy tales will soon take 


But since free expression is the keynote of the situation, and no 
teaching per se is permitted, how, beyond what is due to natural 
progress, may any advance be expected towards either correct 
manipulation or the acquisition of a desirable degree of technical 
ability ? Is the teacher to be no more than a mere cypher ? Since 
she is a teacher, how may she fulfil her function except by active 
interference ? We have already stated that the teacher must 
become as one of the little ones again, and so enter into all their 
work, not as the teacher, but as one of the pupils. Thus, as she 
works in their midst, and side by side with them, will her influence 
be best felt. When models are compared at the end of the lesson 
and views are exchanged, when all are discussing what is most easily 
effected in clay and what is altogether too difficult or unsuitable, 
and discovering how one thing is best done in this way rather than 
in that — the children will be led by their active interest to desire 
the best technique. The teacher must avoid commending her own 
performance, and take pains to award all possible credit to that of 
the little ones. In this way the teaching will be most effective 
and educative, since it is accomplished rather by example than by 



The Function of Fairy Tales. In addition to laying the found- 
ation of a taste for literature, fairy tales have the advantage, 
at this stage, of quickening the imagination and directing 
it along healthy lines. Not that our little ones are said to 
lack this faculty — they have it undoubtedly as we all know ; 
but there is a great danger that, unless it be rightly directed, 
it may run into morbid channels, impelling the child to a 
state of mind more and more introspective, while all around 
there lies a great wealth of ideas, old and yet ever new, waiting to 
carry the mind away from self, far away into the realms of gold ! 


If, then, the imagination be so aroused, it should immediately 
have scope to express itself, for in expression the imagination not 
only has a perfectly natural vent, and so is thereby clarified, but 
in the very use it is also strengthened. 

Choice of Fairy Tales. A great wealth of fairy tales and kindred 
stories lies ready to hand. To particularize seems almost 
unuQccss'dvy— Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, Three Bears, Jack the 
(jia)it Killer, Puss in Boots, together with those of a later growth, 
Aladdin, Rip van Winkle, Hiaivatha, and Peter Pan — all provide 
innumerable figures and pictures for clay modelling. Children's 
apj^reciation of the ludicrous is proved by the popularity of 
Alice in Wonderland and Brer Rabbit. 

All children delight to fashion the quaint forms found in such 
tales. There is but little risk, however, in the choice of stories. 
We have such a wealth of classics ready to hand that there is very 
little chance of making a bad selection ; but the great point that 
concerns us here is to select those that offer greatest scope for 
expression. Let us take Cinderella — the child's greatest favourite — - 
for example. Subjects for modelling are the pumpkin, the fairy 
sli})per, rats and U/.ards ; but the little fingers will, almost without 


exception attempt, first, pictures in which the heroine herself is the 
central figure — lovely Cinderella at the comfortless fireside, and 
the appearance of the fairy godmother bringing happiness into her 
dull life, the gallantry of the beautiful prince, or the eventful 
flight after midnight. 


No picture is complete to a child unless the men and women 
who make the drama are centralized. But, of course, the child 
does not realize the stupendous task he is shouldering when he 
undertakes to represent his heroes and heroines — whether it be in 
pencil or clay. An adult, understanding all this, and realizing her 
limitations, may shrink from such a task, and be appalled by childish 
efforts. And yet, on the other hand, the child takes a real delight 
in fashioning the image of a man. Experience with little folk in 
their expression work shows what a great attraction the dramatis 
personae have for the child. This fact is not surprising, for the 
vitality of the story depends upon them. What is the teacher to 
do, then, under such circumstances ? Should she sternly repress 
any caricature, forbidding the modelling of the human form, and 
permit only such simple work as she considers to be within the 
child's capabilities, or should she teach elementary technique and 
explain the general proportions of the human form ? The former 
course would be harmful, as the natural development of the child 
would be stayed, while the latter may cause much waste of time 
and energy. The most successful method chooses the middle path, 
and is based upon a deeper understanding of the child nature. 


" At the time when the child's drawings are partly symbolic and 
partly representative, they are often very free and unconstrained 
expressions of his ideas. His make-believe tendency helps him to 
see in his drawings all that he meant by them. He has little feeling 
of their inadequacy, and is ready to make almost anything, and to 
tell almost any story with his graphic art, by which both outside 
and inside of houses are shown, wind and heat indicated, successive 
events pictured, and the important parts shown by increased size. 
During this period the child draws from what is in his mind, rather 
than from what he perceives, hence his picture of a man or a table 
is generic rather than individual as is shown by the fact that placing 
a model before him produces little or no modification of the 
conventional design he has adopted." — {Kirkpatrick.) 

" The prime instinct of a child at play is to create : he will use 
the whole force of dream and fancy to create something out of 
nothing, over and beyond what he will make out of such materials as 
he has at hand. The three-year old will lay a dozen wooden bricks 
and four cotton reels together, set a broken cup on the top of them, 


and tell you it is a steam-engine. And so it is. He has created 
the engine which he sees and you don't see, and the pile of bricks 
and cotton reels is the symbol of this creation. He will silently 
borrow your best scissors and cut a serrated band of newspaper 
which he will fasten round his head, hang another newspaper from 
his shoulders, and sit in state holding the hearth brush. He will 
tell you he is a king, and so he is. He has created crown, robes, 
sceptre, and kingship. The paper and rest of it are but symbols." — • 
{Ethel Nisbet.) 

These important facts we tend to overlook, but no one undertaking 
the charge of young children can afford to do otherwise than give 
them careful consideration. Only by doing so can a just apprecia- 
tion of the expression work of our primary grades be understood. 
The crudity can be neglected : the using of the imagination and 
expression are more important. 


Here we come to the heart of our problem. What shall we 
prescribe ? The only satisfactory solution to that puzzling question 
is "At this stage prescribe nothing ! " If the expression is to be 
spontaneous it must arise entirely from the child's own desire, 
not from the teacher's prompting. The teacher's work is to create 
the atmosphere by telling the story, and then with a sympathetic 
co-operation and oversight to encourage individuality. Impose 
no check upon the child's natural desire to model anything and 
everything his fancy may have conceived. It is far better to per- 
suade him to express the salient features of the story as they 
impressed him during its presentation. Thus he may be led to 
express his own thoughts. It is well to let him try his hand at 
anything he chooses, even if he ventures upon impossibilities, for he 
is acquiring a thorough acquaintance with the properties of clay, and 
at the same time gaining increasing flexibility of fingers, a fineness 
of touch, and a fuller appreciation of form. He will discover for 
himself and learn far more effectively than anyone can teach him 
just what is possible for him in the way of modelling and what 
is not. 


Among the primary grades it is but a short step from literature 
to history and geography, and these subjects provide almost 
equal opportunities for expression. 

They are to a great extent allied — both deal, in the main, with 
people and their doings : in studying the former chief stress being 
laid on their progress and aggrandisement as a political force, and on 
the struggle of peoples, one with the other ; in the latter on their 
adaptation to physical environment, and their conflict with 


The History Lessons will have for their aim, then, to convey 
homely impressions of the every day life of the people at 
various periods, stories of simple heroism or conspicuous devo- 
tion, and the accounts of some episode in the lives of great national 
leaders. Instances such as the following might be cited : Life 
in an early British village ; the slave market in Rome ; a Saxon 
earl's dining hall ; the Roman standard bearer ; Caractacus in 
Rome ; Alfred the Great, with his mother, at Athelney, at Wedmore, 
and as a great ruler ; Hereward the Wake ; Thomas a Becket ; 
the brave men of Calais. 

"WTien the stories have been told to the children and they have 
subsequently enacted or dramatized them, they should illustrate 
them at their next modelling lesson. 

Doubt has been expressed as to whether modelling should not 
precede instead of follow dramatization. The teacher must decide 
this according to her own experience and in consultation with her 
particular authority on psychology. We do not propose to discuss 
the question of precedence here, but merely suggest the desirability 
of some suitable provision being made for both. As people figure 
largely in the topics mentioned above, the work must necessarily 
involve models of the human form. The pupil's success in such 
expression depends very largely upon the attitude of the teacher. If 
she can bring herself to see the idea that the child wishes to express 
and can sympathetically commend even the feeblest effort, so that the 
child is encouraged, there need be no fear as to the ultimate value of 
the lesson. The figures are almost invariably crude, but if they em- 
body the situation or convey the action, what more is wanted ? 
A sensible teacher would not cavil at the faulty attempt at corre- 
spondence presented by a child asked to write about his birthday 
party, but will value the ideas he conveys in his letter, paying but 
little heed to his grammatical and orthographical mistakes. To 
a child modelling is certainly easier than letter-writing, but even 
here his technique is of less value than his power to symbolize his 

Geography. Such subjects may come forward as the homes, 
the everyday life, the methods of travelling, the natural 
surroundings of peoples of different climes. These cannot be 
represented satisfactorily in one medium, nor is it desirable that 
such a limitation should be imposed if a freer and fuller expression 
can be obtained with other assistance. 

Dwellings. Take, for example, the problems supplied in the 
representation of the dwellings of people. 

A bark shelter such as the Australian aborigines erect, or a Red 
Indian wigwam, or even an ancient daub and wattle hut, and an 
Esquimaux igloo — all may be constructed very effectively in clay. 
But other methods and media should be employed in making an 
African grass and reed hut. This is especially so with the tree 


houses. To erect a tree in clay and then poise in its branches a 
clay house will lead to disaster. The use of a branch of a tree set 
up in a bed of clay and twigs twined together into a hut is a more 
reasonable and much more cffccti\'e method. 

The Representation of Means of Communication. The animals 
may well be erected in clay, especially if they be made solid, 
with their legs clearly defined in the right position. On 
these a howdah or Arab panniers could be modelled, but paper 
would serve the purpose just as well. Boats, however, should 
seldom or never be attempted in clay. A Laplander's sledge, or 
any other such carriage is a fit subject for clay, but to portray the 
Red Indian's method of removing his household goods in clay is 
usually disastrous. A few sticks should be utilized as a ground- 
work, and on these clay models of his bundles could well be fastened. 

The Representation of a Desert. To be as true as possible 
to fact, sand and stones should be used freely for the ground- 
work of our model. A piece of blue tissue-paper fastened down 
shows the oasis, and all around it are palm trees. These 
cannot be made effectively in clay ; a bundle of long grasses, 
tied with string, and having their feathery heads well pressed 
backwards, can be fixed fast in a bed of clay. The camels, men and 
huts follow next, and provide ample scope for clay modelling. 

Nature Study, regarded from a modelling point of view, is a 
subject offering plenty of scope and immense possibilities. 

Nursery rhymes and fairy tales cannot be employed profitably 
at every stage of the curriculum. In the lower grades they are 
eminently desirable, but at the other end of the course, they must 
tend to give way gradually to realities. Nature study is both 
suitable and eminently desirable for every condition and grade of 
scholar, and so ought to find a place in all our schemes. The world 
of nature is the common heritage of us all — of the meanest as well 
as of the most favoured. Even the slum dweller may not escape 
contact with Mother Nature in some of her aspects, even should 
he desire to do so, which is not likely, for his very existence depends 
upon her. But, pre-eminently, it should be included for this 
reason, that it brings us face to face with perfect art. Here are the 
most wonderful and delightful shapes and surfaces, to say nothing 
of tints, it is possible to conceive ! Here we have the ideal of beauty, 
and its influence is of the highest order, for it appeals to the highest 
and best in man. 


The varying seasons will pro\ide co})ious examples for study, 
and specimens are within the reach of everybody, so that the co- 
operation of the children may be invited both as to the supply and 
the choice of subjects to be modelled. There is no need to grade 
objects — these should follow according to the seasons. A child's 



proffer of help should never be ignored. His choice is possibly 
an extremely limited one, and necessarily he must bring what is 
well within his reach. 

Broadly speaking there is absolutely no occasion to label objects 
suitable for modelling in the primary grades. The little fingers 
should be encouraged to try to model any and every form they 
desire to copy, and for which they have enough material. 

The compact forms, such as fruits, present least difficulty, and 
should be rounded in the hand. No attempt should be made to 

Fig. 3. 

indicate fine markings : the broad characteristics and especially 
mass and proportion should receive most attention. 

Delicate forms, such as flowers and leaves, require a supporting 
background or slab. Young children should not be employed 
upon such a tedious occupation as the making of a slab, nor, having 
made it, should they be expected to reproduce delicate textures like 
leaves and flowers. 


Co-operative effort must be encouraged wherever favourable 
opportunities occur. Little children are often selfish. Some 
correction is doubtless provided in their games, but there are 


few subjects of our curriculum that lend themselves to the cultiva- 
tion of a social spirit as does handwork. If the modelling is put 
into the common stock to accomplish some larger, remoter end, 
every child will feel that he is not modelling so much on his own 
and for his own purpose as for the greater and fuller expression 
of the whole class. This type of work, however, must not be 
allowed to supersede individual work. 


Though the resort to other media than clay is particularly 
advisable in the primary stages of our schools, there is no valid 
reason why, intelligently governed, such employment may not 
hold throughout the school. But for the present let us confine 
our attention to the stage under review. 

It must be perfectly obvious to any one of even slight experience 
with our medium that there are objects unsuitable for modelling 
in clay, and hence a wise supervision needs to be exercised where 
children look for direction ; even where they prefer to follow out 
their own ideas, sympathetic counsel must be readily given 
when things have gone wrong, to save the child from absolute 

Inexperience will alone account for wasted efforts in the futile 
endeavour to make objects, for which the medium is totally unfitted, 
in clay. Who has not seen, time and again, our tiny tots trying to 
represent a tree or a woodland scene in clay ? The work is certainly 
most laborious : one wonders if, in spite of all their exceptional 
ability to forget the object in the symbol intended, whether such 
crude representations really satisfy them. One of the commonest 
pitfalls arises with the incoming of Spring, viz., the desire to make 
a bird's nest and eggs, together with the accommodating branches. 
The nest is difficult enough to represent, without the attendant 
twigs, and one cannot help thinking that the scene would be realized 
quite effectively and more satisfactorily, were the eggs modelled 
to their natural size in clay, put into a nest of woven hay just 
sufficiently large to receive them, and the whole fixed in the fork 
of a real branch, which in its turn is easily held in a bolus of clay 
(Fig. 3). 



Most of the pupils will have spent two or three years in the Prepara- 
tory Department before entering on the present course, and hence 
it may be assumed that they have already acquired in their play 
lessons considerable acquaintance with the medium, clay. That 
its outstanding feature is its plasticity — whether they comprehend 
the full significance of that term or not — they, at least, know full 
well because of the innumerable forms it has assumed in their little 
fingers. They have discovered that whereas paper may be cut 
and folded, raffia, cane, and wool may be twisted, knotted or woven, 
clay alone can be moulded by the pressure of the fingers, and that 
once it has thus been shaped, it remains so until some other external 
force is brought to bear upon it to alter it. All this experience has 
been gathered indirectly and incidentally as they have enjoyed 
their play activity. Possibly they have also realized that while 
other media have but a very limited range in the concrete expression 
of ideas, the capabilities of clay are almost endless. Raffia and 
cane are excellent for making a certain class of objects, especially 
those of a regular form such as " tidies," baskets, or even bonnets ; 
paper is very suitable for making picture representations of the 
stories they read, but for the actual modelling of objects and 
events the possibilities of clay are much greater and the work is 
more easily accomplished. 

Of course, the children may not have expressed these thoughts, 
but, at any rate, this fact is important to us now, namely, that the 
accumulated experience of the previous years being there, we ought 
to proceed to build upon it work of as definite a character as possible, 
and also to provide a wider outlook, suited to the increasing capa- 
bilities of the children. This might be accomplished under excep- 
tionally favourable conditions as to staff and size of class, just on 
the same lines as those advocated for the preparatory stage, but 
sooner or later the play activity — the essential feature of that stage 
— must be left behind. It seems to be a kinder, saner plan to 
make this change gradually, rather than quite abruptly, as it is 
made so often, when by a transition from one class or department to 
another, a child is thrust into a realm of sober, matter of fact 
realities, softened by no free play of the fancy or imagination. 

One way in which the pupils may be introduced to that wider 
sphere of experience is by means of formal exercises designed to 
teach technique, and so to show the fuller possibilities of the 
medium. Objection may reasonably be urged against this, though 
much depends, of course, upon what is meant by teaching technique 




Junior Grade. Age 8. 

First Term. 

Second Term. 

Third Term. 


The Ovoid. 

The Sphere and the 

OBJECT MODELLING, i (a) Rubber BaU, Tennis 
Ball, Cricket BaU 

(a) Fashioned Objects Football. 

(b) Natural Objects (b) Apple, Orange. 

Float, Tipcat or Peggy, 

Fish, Egg, Acorn. 


Pear, Lemon, Potato, 
Onion and Bulbs, 
Conns, Dahlia, Radish, 
Beet, Carrot, Parsnip. 


I. — Individual. 

From Pictures, 
Verbal Descriptions, 
B.B. Sketches. 

1. British Hut, Briton ill 
Skin Garment, Druid 

Coracle, Sickle. 

2. Roman Standard, 

Lamp, Tablet and 
Stylus, Parchment 

3. Esquimaux Snow 

Hut, Sledge, Boat, 
Whale, Seal, 

1. British Weapons — • 

Spear, Shield, Club, 
Arrow Head, Axe 
Roman Helmet, 
Sword, Shield, 
Javelin, Fetters. 

2. N. American Indian 

Hut, Headdress, 
Papoose, Canoe, 
Tomakawk, Cook- 
ing Pot. Pipe of 
S. American Bolas. 

1. Saxon Drinking 
Horn, Shield, Sword, 
Alfred's Candle Clock, 

2. African Slave Yoke, 
Water Gourd. 
Australian Boome- 

n. — Co-operahve. 

(a) History. 

(6) Geography. 

(f) Literature. 
(<i) Seasonable. 

(a) Ancient times in 
Britain — 
Druid scenes. 
Ancient times in 

Rome — 
Coliseum and Circus. 
A Triumph. 

(6) .\rctic scenes — 

Esquimaux at home, 
fishing, travelling. 
Laplander, ditto. 
British exploring 
(c) Pied Piper of ) „ . 
Hamelin J- ^;^^' 

Bishop Halto ) ®"^- 

{d) (i) Autumn Fruits. 

(ii) Autumn Games — 
Football, etc. 

(iii) Guy Fawkes Day — 
Fireworks — 
Christmai — our 
dinner — Eastern 
sheepfold and 

(a) Landing of Julius 
Caesar, British 
mode of fighting. 


Caractacus in Rome. 

(a) Arrival of Saxons and 
Danes — 
Raiding parties. 
Vortigern feasts the 

Alfred in Athelney. 

,, Danish 

(6) American Indian '(b) African and Austra- 

scenes — ' lian scenes — 

Red Indian {see \ Natives at home. 

Hiawatha). I Exploring parties. 


(c) Pedlar's Caravan — 
Gipsy encampment. 

How Horatius kept 
the bridge. 

(d) (i) Spring's awaken- 

ing — Buds and 

(ii) Winter Games — 
Snow Man, 
Dominoes, etc. 
(iii) Good Friday and 
Easter — Hot cross 
buns, Easter Eggs. 
Eastern Tomb with 
movable door. 

(c) The Village Black- 
smith, The smithy. 
Robinson Crusoe, 
scenes from. 
(tl) (i) Summer Fruits — 
Cherry, Straw- 
berry, Plum, 
(ii) Summer Games — 
Cricket, Croquet, 
Nine-pins. etc. 
(iii) Holidays — finds on 
the sea-shore, 
finds on country 

(iv) Pets. 



and to what degree it is taught. Some would prefer the child 
" to work out its own salvation," but however well that sounds 
in theory, it breaks down in practice, and for very good reasons. 
One of the fundamental characteristics that mark off man from 
the rest of creation is the faculty of acquiring knowledge from 
others, that is, the ability to assimilate racial experience. Thus, 
man is able to assimilate and put to his own use, the results of all 
the accumulated experience, i.e., the knowledge of his forefathers. 
The main purpose of our schools should be the imparting of this 
knowledge in a systematic manner. 

Hence, then, there is no great objection to formal exercises 
per se, especially if they are designed — as before stated — to teach 

Fig. 4. 

a certain amount of technique in order to bring our pupils to 
the understanding of the wider possibilities and greater scope of 
the media, which the race has discovered for us by previous 


Apparatus : Piece of clay as large as the child's fist. Modelling 
board on which to rest the clay and the finished work. 

The Sphere : The whole portion of clay should be taken up and 
rolled between the hollowed palms, the purpose being to produce 
as perfect a sphere as possible. 

Move the palms, held horizontally (Fig. 4), in a circular direction, 
and without stopping to examine progress, try to feel that an 
evenly-shaped spherical body is being produced. Do not keep 
the clay in one position so that only a small portion of the surface 



receives treatment, but move it about as it is being rolled, so that 
the whole is shaped. As soon as the desired shape is thought to 
be obtained, rolling should stop. No advantage is gained by 
continuing a process after its purpose has been achieved, and valuable 
time should never be wasted. Take the supposed sphere between 
the thumb and second finger of the right hand, and hold it up to 
the light so that its contour may be inspected (Fig 5). Move it 
from hand to hand, and turn it about in different directions to see 
if a circular outline is given from every position. 

When taking this model the teacher should remember that, 
firstly, an absolutely regular sphere is well nigh unattainable even 

Fig. 5. 

by an expert modeller, and, therefore, it cannot be expected from 
a beginner ; secondly, that the child will soon tire of this exercise, 
because he will find how elusive is the form he is aiming to produce ; 
and thirdly, that such work is insufficient as an outlet for all his 
pent-up energy. Before he gets weary, then, of the exercise, and 
as soon as presentable forms have been secured, let the clay balls 
be placed upon the modelling boards. A slight pressure flattening 
a small portion of the surface will prevent the sphere from rolling off. 

Object Modelling. — Spherical Objects. The opportunity should 
be taken of bringing some of the play spirit of the previous terms 
into the work, to relieve the dry formalism of this exercise. 

Many familiar objects are shaped like the sphere. Some of the 
commonest are the balls of various sizes used in games. These 
are all manufactured articles ; there are only a few natural forms 
of suitable size that approximate to this shape, viz., orange, 


apple. As many examples as possible should be cited for the class 
to remember, because it will be necessary to invite them to bring 
these objects for subsequent modelling lessons. Such a conversa- 
tion need not occupy more than a minute or two, and should take 
place before the lesson closes. 

The completed spheres, already lying on the boards, should 
be utilized, so that the children do not feel that all their labour has 
been in vain, and that every opportunity for play has disappeared. 
In their geography lessons they have probably learned at least a 
few facts about the heavenly bodies — that they are spherical, that 
they rotate on their own axes, that some have certain motions 
relative to others. Let us now use some of these lumps of clay to 
illustrate our planet's relation to the solar system. With such an 

Fig. 6. 

end in view the teacher might give the bigger boys a large portion 
of clay, and grade the amounts according to the size of the hands, 
so that spheres of varying sizes will be made. If this is done, there 
will be no difficulty in choosing balls to represent the sun, earth, 
and moon. A stick thrust half-way through will give them 
greater realism (Fig. 6) . Certain boys may be called upon to stand 
holding their spheres, while the relative motions of these heavenly 
bodies are demonstrated. 

Of course, such play is liable to convey errors, and it will be 
advisable to clear up certain apparent misconceptions, e.g., the great 
bodies represented by the balls are held in position by some myster- 
ious force of attraction, which we can neither see nor demonstrate. 
Some attempt should be made to lead the children to understand 
that the sizes and distances of the real bodies cannot be truly 

If the sphere representing the earth alone be treated, and certain 

3— (1017) 



of its parts dealt with, e.g., poles, equator, zones, etc., it will perhaps 
be just as well not to mark these by scored lines. That, again, 
would be liable to convey an erroneous impression. Divisions of 
the globe can be shown by means of coloured paper, choosing white 
for parts that are perpetually snow covered. To do this, cut two 
circular pieces of white tissue paper and place one over each of the 
frigid zones. For the torrid zone, use a strip of scarlet, leaving 
the temperate zone uncovered. 

Such recreative work need occupy at most but a few minutes, 
and the advantage it offers is that the children leave off fresh and 
eager for the next clay modelling lesson. 

Fig. 7. 

Fashioned Objects Based on the Sphere. (Fig. 7.) Lead off again 
with the construction of a sphere, but this time have ready 
as many examples as possible, e.g., a parti-coloured India rubber 
ball, football, tennis and cricket balls, golf ball, etc. Place 
one of these conspicuously in the middle of each group of 
children, or better still, let each child model the particular ball he 
has brought. They will ha\'e their models in the required shape, 
but there are various characteristic markings that must be shown 
before the model can be said to represent a certain kind of ball. 
These markings may be made with a match stick, the end bcin§' 
split with the finger nail so as to give it a sharp working point. 

Nature Forms in the Shape of a Sphere. The children must be told 
be-orchand that oranges and apples will be required for study, so 



that as many as possible may be brought, an object being placed 
before each child or group. 

Again begin with the sphere produced by circular rolling between 
the palms. 

Orange. Investigation will show that the orange is not a perfect 
sphere. It is shghtly flattened where the stalk was attached, and 
also on the opposite side, where a small black speck marks the 
position of the fallen stigma. A very slight pressure of the model 
upon the board at these points, and then a few strokes with the 
sharpened match stick, will suffice to emphasize these features. 

If time should permit of closer investigation, call upon the pupils 
to consider the parts of the fruit in some detail. To this end two 
of the oranges might be cut with a knife, the one being cut longitu- 
dinally and the other transversely into two parts as nearly as possible 
equal. The clay models should be divided similarly by means of 
a loop of thin string (Fig. 8) ; this the children are almost sure to be 

Fig. 8. 

able to contribute out of their pockets' treasures. The appearance 
of the sections — orange and clay — should be compared, and the 
cut surface of the orange should be represented in the model by 
lines made with the sharpened match. 

Such investigation may be termed analytical : it is the method 
followed daily when dealing with dessert, and is much more rational 
than trying to work synthetically. Nature does not build up tiny 
seeds, then surround these with yellow, juicy sections, and having 
produced the requisite number, envelope the whole with a whitish 
skin, coloured characteristically on the outside. Such a method 
is liable to give a distorted idea of the process of Nature, and the 
modelling of the small parts seems a most undesirable task for 
^children. Little good can be expected from work of that kind ; a 
'child cannot be deluded into the belief that he is making an orange, 
nor can the exercise be regarded as suitable for teaching him its 
constituent parts — he will have discovered them far more effectively 
when eating the fruit. 



The Apple. It will be best at this early stage to model the roundest 
specimens to be obtained. 

The new features demanding attention are the recesses marking 
the positions of the stalk and the flower. These can be made by 
working the tip of the linger into the clay with a rotary motion, 
and where the hollow is most pointed, the indentation can be obtained 
by a similar movement with a match. 

Avoid any exaggeration. While the pupils must understand 
that their object is to produce as truthful a copy as possible, 
attention to the main features will provide reality, whilst 
over-elaboration leads often to caricature. 

Fig. 9. 

If a stalk be required, two courses are possible — a short thick 
stalk embedded in the hollow of the apple and scarcely 
protruding, can be shown by a small amount of clay shaped in the 
fingers and inserted into position ; but if the stalk be long and thin 
a piece of string is far more effective and more easily fixed. 

The structure of the apple may be investigated in a way 
similar to that suggested in the case of the orange. 


The Ovoid or egg shape — is derived from the sphere by a rolling 
action concentrated upon one portion of the surface. 

The first step is to construct a sphere. This should be held in 
the hands slightly concave to accommodate it, and with a back- 
wards and forwards movement, rolled perpendicularly rather than 
horizontally till it assumes an egg form (Fig. 9). This we can take 
as the basis of our study of quite a number of manufactured and 
natural objects. When this form is being made for the first time, 



practice in obtaining it should not be continued to such an extent 
that the children lose interest. The end of the lesson should be 
given up to a more recreative form of the exercise, and to this end 
the class should be asked for opinions as to what the form suggests 
to their minds and what other objects they could easily make it 
represent. The models suggested may afford future exercise as 
in the case of the sphere. 

To some it may possibly suggest : let them flatten the ovoid 
slightly, pressing the palm on the clay as it lies on the modelling 
board. Next, pinch out portions to make the shape of the tail and 

Fig. 10. 

dorsal fins, and scratch with a match the mouth, eyes, gills, and 
pectoral fins (Fig. 10). 

Others may think of a fisherman's line and float. To represent a 
float one end needs to be somewhat flattened and rounded (Fig. 11). 
A short match stick should be fixed in this end and a longer one in 
the other. The scholars may now proceed to complete it with 

Fig. 11, 

string and band according to individual fancy. Of course, there 
should be no delusion here : the children must not be led to believe 
that they are making an actual float — a heavy compact mass of 
clay would no more comply with the requirements of the angler 
than would the clay model of an orange appease the boy whose 
mouth was watering for luscious fruit ! 

To some children the form may suggest a mouse or ral ; others 
will think of a tip cat, and others, perhaps, of a polony. Whatever 
the idea may be, so long as it be feasible, let them have full scope 
for the play of their imagination and so for experimenting. 

If such a plan of working appeals to the teacher it will be un- 
necessary to make any further arrangements for the modelling of 
fashioned objects based on this form, and so we may pass on at 
once to the next step. 


Nature Forms based on the Ovoid. The egg is probably the 
simplest and most readily procurable natural object in this shape, 
and an example should be modelled, as already suggested, in this 
way. Take a suitable quantity of clay, and then shape roughly 
into a sphere by circular rolling. Next, by forward and backward 
rolling between the palms, reduce its thickness till it begins to 
assume the desired form (Fig. 12). The ends of the egg, to be 
rounded, may then require rolling in the hands. 

The egg does not lend itself to sectional demonstration, but the 
rest of the lesson could be spent profitably in such a recreative 
exercise as this. Let them try to balance the modelled object on 
its ends. This will give an opportunity to relate the story told of 
Christopher Columbus, who disposed of that difficulty by cracking 
the shell with a tap on the table, and thus, without spilling the 

Fig. 12. 

contents, flattened it so that it stood up quite stable, settling once 
and for all the vexed conundrum of big-enders and little-enders. 
Of course, the awful fate which befel " Humpty Dumpty " will not 
be overlooked. 

If the children long to put their eggs into egg-cups, just as they 
see mother do at breakfast, let them ; but they had better be left 
to their own devices to make this difficult form in any way which 
seems to them best. If they succeed, well and good, but it will not 
serve any good purpose to spend time teaching it at this stage. 

The acorn and cup should follow, but they should be modelled 
at least twice full size. The roughened exterior of the cup can be 
indicated with the jagged end of a broken match stick, and again 
the stalk should be represented by a piece of thin string. 


The barrel is merely a ^•arlation of the ovoid. Flatten each end 
of the ovoid by tapping on the board, and then roll again in the 
hands to produce an even convex surface. The markings for 
staves and hoops should then be made (Fig. 13). This form occurs 
in objects such as jugs and biscuit barrels, glasses and vases, 
all of which may be modelled solid. 

Recreative exercises should follow the more formal ones, and the 
children may wish to model such objects as the farmer's dog in 
his kennel, or the dove cot in the farmyard, or even the crow's nest 
of the mariner as he sails the dangerous seas. 



Nature Forms. The children will have progressed sufficiently 
to model the more complex forms which require more than mere 
rolling to secure a true likeness, and yet the more complicated forms 
need not be offered for the sake of increasing the difficulty. In fact, 
the most regular specimens should rather be chosen, e.g., the pear, 
lemon, onion, bulbs and corms should all be as nearly spherical 
as possible. 

These objects may be said to be alike, since their form consists 
of a sphere plus an outgrowth. Begin by making the sphere as 

Fig. 13. 

large as convenient, more especially when small corms and bulbs 
are to be modelled (Fig. 14). For the pear, judge the amount of 
clay to be added to form the cone-shaped end. Work this into a 

Fig. 14. 

small sphere and then, being put in position, shape it down into its 
place on the larger mass and finish off between the thumb and index 
finger of the right hand, while the whole is being supported and 
rotated as required by the thumb and fingers of the left hand. 

External and sectional markings may follow as each model 

The model of the potato will probably need flattening on the board 
to fashion the ovoid into its requisite form, and then the eyes may 
be picked out with a match stick to complete the representation. 

The dahlia, tuber, radish and beet taper at both ends, though 



not always to an equal degree (Fig. 15). The ovoid form having 
been made, rolling backwards and forwards may be done on the 
board until the required amount of tapering has been secured. 

The carrot and parsnip are more conical in form, and so instead 
of tapering both ends, the upper one will require tapping on the 
board to flatten it (Fig. 15). Whatever outgrowths of leaves and 
stalks are necessary should be added subsequently. 


Side by side with the formal modelling and the modelling from 
objects, plenty of scope should be provided for the less strenuous 
free modelling. In the former, the utmost approach to correct- 
ness of form is desirable, but to obtain this, the pupil is kept 
always at a tension, for his work is continually under criticism. 

Fig. 15. 

Also, he is beginning now to appreciate the degree of success 
or failure that attends such efforts. If he often succeeds, he may 
be expected to maintain his interest, but if failure dogs his 
steps there will be a danger of his natural liking for modelling being 
lost. The teacher should remember that the little modeller has 
but recently left the kindergarten and its numerous facilities for 
play, so that it would be most unwise to press unduly for a con- 
tinuance of the work that has ceased to appeal to him. Free 
modelling, then, has been described as less strenuous, for here it 
is not accuracy of technique that is wanted so much as a generally 
accurate representation of the object to be modelled, and the 
presentation of the ideas the situation has awakened in his mind. 
If a boy has received a correct idea of the thing to be portrayed, 
it should be quite easy for him to show just the required 
characteristics. Herein lies one of the excellent qualities of manual 
work. A boy is not able to delude himself or his teacher by an 
appearance of knowledge. In manual work each scholar stands or 
falls upon his own personal ability, for he at once reveals the 


accuracy of his impression in the truth of his expression. Here he 
knows or he does not know, and if he merely thinks he knows, his 
work will show his deficiency of real knowledge. 

The usual category of class subjects will provide ample oppor- 
tunity for the exercise of free modelling. The syllabus appended 
suggests that individual class work should precede co-operative 
modelling, and here some study should be made of those details 
subsequently required for the ensemble. 

The effective and very necessary study of these details will 
impose upon the busy class teacher an additional burden of prepara- 
tion, for the pupils at this early stage can scarcely be expected to 
forage for themselves as profitably as the elder pupils in the 


upper divisions. Much material will doubtless be ready at hand 
in the school reader illustrations, and these ought to be utilized 
first and to the fullest possible extent ; but this source will also 
have to be supplemented by reference to actual objects to be found 
in the school and local museums, or loaned by friends ; and when 
these no longer provide the required data, the teacher must supply 
missing details by blackboard illustrations prepared in anticipation. 
The list of suggestive topics under the respective heads of history, 
geography, literature, and seasonable, are such as would, in all 
probability, be applicable to junior classes in most districts, and 
even in cases where they cannot be adopted in every detail the 
method as outlined below will no doubt be sufftciently suggestive. 


The ideal procedure would be that in which the free modelling 
arose spontaneously out of the reading or oral lessons. For example, 
they will read in their history books of the Ancient Britons and the 
life they lived prior to the Roman invasion. 

Armed with these facts and inspired by such an appeal to their 
imagination, the natural outcome will be that they themselves 




should be Ancient Britons, and re-act these scenes. So, dressed 
up with improvised costume, e.g., a bit of sacking tied round the 
body, over their ordinary clothes, to represent an animal's skin, 
and with unkempt hair, such everyday domestic scenes could be 
dramatized as the hunt for food and its simple preparation, the 
tribal quarrels showing the primitive weapons used and Druidical 

To fix all this in the mind and to keep the imagination within 
truthful limits, these scenes should be reconstructed. When 
acting the part of an Ancient Briton in a modern twentieth century 

^ K J ^ '^ 

Fig. 16. 

schoolroom, the important factor of environment is missing, and 
since we cannot get rid entirely of our local environment to make 
the reconstruction perfect, we had better find other means of 
obtaining an accurate representation of the scenes. This can 
be done by modelling the actors and scenes in miniature. In doing 
this a child's fancy can be allowed free play, and can carry him 
through all the experiences it can devise consonant with such 

So a typical village scene arises (Fig. 16). In the background 
arc one or more daub and wattle huts, and nearer to the spectator 
the inevitable swamp, lake or river. Outside the hut a woman 
is seen preparing a meal, children at play — ^possibly mimicking 
the doings of their elders, the father returning from the chase, 
from fishing, or from a more hostile foray ; there may even be a 
Druid on his way to perform sacrificial rites in the temple. 


Now, before such a scene can be reconstructed, some preliminary 
study must be made so that the details may be truthful. The 
weapons used at this period must be considered — the spears, darts, 
clubs, and shields. Though some nations used bronze weapons, 
those less civilized and more remote from the influence of the con- 
tinent, probably still persisted in the prehistoric flint and stone 
implements. There is room for the coracle, the characteristic 
boat of this period easily shaped in clay, though a much more 
representative form could be made by weaving, pitching the inner 
and outer surfaces. The Druid's sickle for cutting down the mistletoe, 
and the golden breastplate of the Arch Druid must not be overlooked, 
nor even the wreath of oak leaves and his harp. These things 
being first understood, and the kind of daub and wattle hut having 
been explained, the pupils are ready for communal representation. 
It is far better that they should work in groups, for " many hands 
make light work." 

A good plan, and one that has proved its value in many instances, 
is to appoint an elder child of the class, especially if he be a good 
modeller, as the head of each group. There are, in most schools, 
older children in these junior classes, who have been held back 
because they have been slow at some of their lessons. Yet, 
it frequently happens that these, while slow mentally, are 
exceedingly clever with their fingers, doing handwork with great 
facility, and showing skill far above the average of the class. If 
they have lost caste because of inability to do sums or read well, 
here is an excellent chance for them to raise themselves once more 
in the eyes of their fellows. 

Scenes such as the landing of the Romans, and structures of the 
same type as that of a Roman wall, are suitable for representation 
in clay. 

Much useful and interesting work can be done in making models 
of historical buildings. These also provide opportunities for 
communal work. One, or perhaps two, models will suffice for a term. 

Common red clay, provided by the children, can be used. The 
plan of operations should be thought out carefully. All that the 
teacher need provide is a strong base-board and plenty of cloths 
to keep the growing building moist. 

This communal work need not interfere with the usual handwork 
lessons, but may be resorted to by children with spare time, e.g., 
before and after school, or by those who have finished their set 
work during any given lesson. 


History and geography are kindred subjects at every stage 
of our primary school curriculum, but especially so are they in the 
lessons to the juniors. It is, therefore, an easy step from a scene 
of British family life of long ago, to that among the Laplanders 


cLav Modelling for schools. 

or Esquimaux of the present day (Fig. 17). The procedure in this 
case is on precisely similar lines : all we need to emphasize being 
that whereas in the former case we showed things as they very 
probably were, now we are on surer ground, for our data are based 
upon solid fact, and there are people at this time living in exactly 
such conditions as we are portray ng. 

The construction of an igloo or snow-house is always a fascinating 
occupation. With a pencil, sketch a circle upon the modelling 
board ; this will determine the area of the house. Two methods 


of construction present themselves, one approximating to the actual 
plan followed by the Esquimaux, and the other pro\'iding not for 
the actual construction of the house, but for a fairly good 
representation of the external appearance. 

The Esquimaux cut blocks of snow, and these, suitably shaped, 
are heaped one upon the other, a spray of water in that cold region 
being suiftcient to bind the wall into a solid block of ice. 

The second method deals only with the external shape, and no 
attempt is made to hollow the hut. On the modelhng board and 
in the centre of the marked circle, heap a rough cone of clay to 
mark the extreme height. Then add small lumps of clay, pressing 



them into this cone and gradually work outwards towards the 
boundary line, smoothing the surface as you proceed until a 
hemispherical body results. 

Now for the means of going in and out in either representation, 
a flat slab of clay of suitable thickness can be prepared on the 
modelling board, bent into shape, and fixed to the hut, or such a 
contrivance may be constructed of blocks of clay in the manner of 
wall building. Marks indicating the slabs can be made with a 
match stick. 

The human and animal figures are just as well left to the children's 
own choice, the only reservation being the necessity for a due 

Fig. 17. 

observance of proportion. The accessories, viz., sledge, harness 
and fishing implements, etc., should again be left to the children, 
who should be encouraged to employ media which seem to promise 
the most satisfactory results. For example, a few kindergarten 
sticks lashed together will give a good model of a sledge, or it may 
form a subject for the paper-modelling lesson. Harness and fishing 
lines, of course, will require thread or fine string. The construction 
of a kayak, or native boat, is too difficult a task for paper work, 
and so it should be made in clay, but the paddle is much more 
efficient if made by the pupils in their spare time by whittling a 
chip into the required shape. 

All the other subjects suggested for the junior course should 
follow on precisely similar lines. 


Literature should provide the children with ideas suitable for 
expression in clay. This will be especially true if the recitation 



is chosen with the two purposes in view, first of appeahng to the 
poetic sense, secondly to give the children suggestive pictures. 
The Village Blacksmith, from the third term's work, is taken as an 
example, showing especially how paper modelling and clay modelling 
may run hand in hand. 

Every schoolboy — in Macaulay's phrase — has seen a blacksmith 
at work. His is one of those occupations for which children seem 
to possess an inherited fascination, so that they all are drawn 
irresistibly to " look in at the open door," though they may have 
already stopped often to gaze on the busy scene. 

The teacher will have little trouble in setting the children to 
work upon the things they know are to be found in every smithy — 

Fig. 18. 

hammer, anvil and block, tongs, horse-shoes, nails, shoeing box, 
knife, etc., etc., the great difficulty being, however, to keep all 
these within proper limits, so that they bear a reasonable proportion 
the one to the other. 

But to secure an effective grouping of all these items of interest 
it will be necessary to prepare a cardboard model representing the 
interior of the smithy (Fig. 18). The help of the older children may 
be requisitioned, and should be gladly rendered, if there is a proper 
spirit of mutual helpfulness between the senior and junior divisions 
of the school. 

The interior must be tinted dully to represent a smoky place, 
and the " spreading chestnut tree " placed in the middle foreground 
will not only fulfil the conditions, but prove an effective support, 
The younger children themselves will draw and colour, cut out and 
mount the accessory figures — " the children pausing at the open 
door," the smith with leathern apron and " brawny arms," the 
horse waiting to be shod, as well as the blazing hearth with real bits 



of coke painted a fiery red. The bellows is a more difficult task, 
but the senior lads will no doubt be able to improvise this, using 
thick card or wood for the upper and lower parts, and thin, tough 
glazed paper for the folding bellows. Water cooling tanks and 
shoeing box are good models for the juniors in their paper modelling 

But the objects to be modelled in clay are our chief concern here, 
and we must pass on to them (Fig. 19). The largest and most 
conspicuous feature in the smith's workshop, namely, the anvil and 
its block, should be attempted first. In order to do this well the 
children should be advised to seize the earliest opportunity of 
studying it in the nearest blacksmith's shop. Knowing the size 
most suitable for accommodation in the cardboard model, they 
can then proceed to work when next clay modelling lesson comes 

Fig. 19. 

round. Most probably all who have taken the trouble to visit 
the smithy will agree as to its general features — the smooth surface 
on which to hammer, and the long pointed tang on which the shoes 
are shaped. If other necessary details are forthcoming so much 
the better. 

In selecting an anvil and block for the communal model — ■ 
although it is advisable to arrange for as many such groups as 
possible, so that no child feels that his work has been neglected — 
it is not essential that the best model should be marked out 
for this special favour. It is wise at times to take a second-rate 
model if the worker has striven particularly hard for this distinction. 
Thus encouragement will not always be confined to the more gifted 

The children may now divide their attention among the other 
appurtenances. Many shoes will be required for storage on the 
walls, several hammers, large and small, and pairs of pincers and 
nails are found in every well-equipped smithy. Then a wheel 
ought to be made, and this is a very interesting and fairly effective 
piece of work. 


First shape the hub out of a small ball of clay ; then, taking 
eight spent matches, fix the sticks into the hub at regular intervals 
to represent the spokes. The felloe must be put on in four sections. 
To prepare this take a ball of clay, roll it between the palms to 
form a cylinder, then place it on the table and roll again until it 
is of suitable thickness. By stroking the fingers from left to right 
along the whole length of it, it will be flattened. If now it is turned 
half-way over and the process repeated, a square prism results. 
Cut off a piece of the required length and bring it towards two 
adjacent spokes : press it so that the spokes pierce the felloe and 
at the same time give it a slight bend, so that it lies in a quadrant 
of a circle. Slice off the free edges so that only a piece projects 
equal to half the distance between the spokes on either side : repeat 
the process for the four sections. The joints of these felloes should 
now be smoothed over and a paper strip for a tyre added. 

Needless to say, as the clay is soft and plastic, the whole wheel 
must now be left for a day or two to dry, before an attempt is made 
to stand it up or roll it along. Then a number of wheels can be 
used with a paper body and a stick for an axle, to form fine harvest 
waggons, the hay — real hay or grass — can be loaded, and a happy 
group of children mounted on top with flags and banners, the 
pleasant song of " Harvest Home " bringing the lesson to a fitting 
close. Or, perhaps, the same harvest waggon can be brought up 
to the smithy with a broken wheel, requiring immediate attention, 
or with a worn-out tyre to be replaced by a new one. 


These are too obvious to need any amplification. Of course, 
they should not be taken out of their legitimate place ; for they 
would lose much of their point and freshness if prescribed without 
any regard to the calendar. Taken as the children feel the need 
for expressing themselves, and when the high days and holidays 
come round, they prove a valuable adjunct to one's programme 
and a source of great delight to the pupils. 



Generally speaking, the work of the intermediate groups of the 
school will continue on the same lines as those already laid down 
for guidance during the previous course ; that is, a minimum of 
formal exercises is followed by the modelling of allied fashioned 
and natural objects, while pari passu ample time will be given for 
free modelhng. This latter branch of our study must still dominate 
the syllabus, but to a much less degree than heretofore — say from 
one half to two-thirds of the whole time devoted to the subject. 

At this stage, the children are beginning to desire greater reality 
in their constructions, and will not be wholly satisfied by external 
likenesses. The experiences they have accumulated give them 
greater skill in the manipulation of clay, and so the desired forms 
are more easily attained. It is still desirable to prescribe only 
such exercises as call into action the larger muscles of the hands, 
i.e., those involved in rolling movements. Fashioning with the 
finger-tips, if done at all, should be expected as little as possible, 
the great majority of the models continuing to be made as large 
as convenient, and requiring no detailed attention to give them 
their characteristic features. 

As modelling from the object assumes greater importance at 
this stage, the children must have the object within easy reach, 
so that not only may there be the fullest opportunity for observa- 
tion, but even for handling, if such near reference is felt to be 
necessary. One example for every four children may be considered 
sufficient. Where only just enough specimens are provided, it 
is easy for one group to change <vith another when both have 
completed one model. One point needs strong emphasis, namely, 
that if object modelling is prescribed, we must take care that the 
modelling is actually done with the object in view, and that sufficient 
reference is being made to it to ensure a reasonable likeness. If 
this is not done it is just as well for the teacher, and far better for 
the children, to call the work memory modelling, and to regard 
it as such. 

Since it is established that a good supply of models is necessary, 
the co-operation of the class in the provision of these should be 
invited and expected. If at the outset, the general course of work 
is described, and indications are given as to what is and what is 
not suitable at this stage, there should not be much difficulty in 
procuring all that is really necessary. Some of the objects may be 
of no further use to the children. Permission to retain these for 


4— (1017) 




Intermediate Grade {a). Age 9. 

First Term. 

[ Second Term. 

Third Term. 


The Cylinder. 

The Thread or small 

The Cylinder and the 

The Sphere (revision). 



The Sphere (revision). 

The Sphere (revision). 


(a) Round Ruler, Rol- 

Links cf Chain — plain 

Nine-pins, Towel Roller. 

ling Pin, Candle, 

and twisted. 

Bobbins and Reels. 

(a) Fashioned Objects 

Night Light, Colour 

Button Hook. 

Dumb Bell, Indian Club. 

(6) Natural Objects. 

Tube, Easel Peg. 

Figures and Letters. 

Croquet Mallet. 

Garden Setting 

Butcher's Hooks. 

Horse shoe. 


Clef and Sterling Sym- 

Garden Roller. 

bols, Bradawl. 

Handles of Tools. 

Stafford Knot. 

(6) Apples and Round 

Lemon and Egg-shaped 

Banana and Cylindri- 

Fruits and Vege- 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

cal Fruits and Vege- 





1 . Danish Spear, Shield, 

1. Bishop's Mitre, 

1 . Crown and Regalia of 

Crown, Altar and 

Crosier, Cross. 

King John. 

I. — Individual. 

its furniture. 

2. Norman Helmet, 

2. Crusader's Shield, 

From Pictures, 

Sword, Shield, etc. 

Helmet, Battle Axe, 

Verbal Descriptions, 

Mace, Sword. 

B.B. Sketches. 

3. Sack of Com, Mill- 

3. Bucket, Bell. 

3. Buoy and Bell. 


4. Brazier and Irons. 

Arrangement of 

.Arrangement of 

.'Arrangements as before, 

(a) Spheres. 

(a) Small Spheres and 


(6) Spheres and Cylin- 

Cotton, e.g., Neck- 

Prince of Wales' 




(c) Depression, etc., to 

(6) Flattened Threads, 

Staffordshire Knot. 

produce new 


Script signs, e.g. — 


Roman Numerals, 
hence Clock Face 

SterUng, Dollar, Clef. 



n. — Co-operative. 

(a) Canute on the sea 

(a) Death of Bccket. 

(a) Magna Charta signed. 

(a) History. 


Penance of Henry 11. 

Bruce and Spider. 

Harold takes oath to 

Richard I and Knight 

Edward I at Car- 


(li the Leopard. 


Death of Harold. 

Richard I and 

Edward I at Burgh- 

Hereward the Wake. ■ 



(6) Literature. 

(6) The Windmill (Long- 

(fc) The Kopewalk 

Inchcape Rock 





St. George and the 

Hubert and Arthur 



(c) Geography. 

(c) Relief Map of 

c) Relief Map of 

f) Relief Map of 

Dee, Mersey and j 

Cornish Peninsula, 

N.E. Coast with Pen- 

R bble Coast, 

S.E. Coast, 


North Wales, 

Isle of Wight and 

Cumbrian Group, 

Anglesea and Menai 


Severn Basin. 


(rf) Observation. 

d) Tools father uses in 

d) A butcher's tools. 

d) Postman's equipment. 

the garden. 

A baker's tools. 

Policeman's „ 

„ mother uses in 

A cobbler's tools. 

Fireman's „ 


„ we use in schooL 



the future benefit of the class should be sought, and a box kept 
for storing them. 

The remarks already made regarding the inclusion of a scheme 
of work for the junior course are equally applicable to the inter- 
mediate and subsequent stages. The sole function of a syllabus 
is to be suggestive ; it is the friendly counsellor and guide of the 
busy teacher. The advantage of forming such a scheme of work 
lies in the forethought and logical experience one acquires in looking 
steadily ahead ; but that having been done, the next advantage 
it must offer is facility to depart from it. No programme is so 
perfect but it may be improved upon, and a wide-awake outlook 
upon the plan of work and progress of the class will show how 
numerous are the opportunities that arise for departure from the 
prescribed course, to the ultimate advantage both of the work 
and the class. 


The Cylinder. The manual movement that produced the 
sphere was a circular, rotatory rolling of the clay between the palms 
of the hands. If the sphere so made be now subjected to a back- 
wards and forwards rolling, a cylindrical form is the result. The 
pupils should watch the teacher do this, and then try for themselves. 
As soon as the first sign of ennui is evident, turn the work into play, 
trusting to secure a more perfect representation of the cylinder 
at some subsequent lesson. 

There are many ways in which this play may be directed. For 
example, call the cylinder a roll of dough on the baker's board : 
this can be broken up and fashioned into loaves, etc. Pinched 
at suitable intervals it might even become a string of sausages, 
black puddings, or a polony. These can be supposed to be made 
of pork — roll them all up again into a short and stout cylinder, 
pinch out legs, ears, and snout, make the nostrils, mouth, and eyes 
with a match stick, and there is the pig ! Similarly call the cylinder 
a huge tree trunk lying on the ground waiting for transportation. 
In some eastern lands this is done by well-trained elephants who 
easily pick up the log, balance it with the trunk, and carry it off 
wherever their masters desire. So shape this log into a bulkier 
cylinder, adding pieces for legs and trunk to complete our elephant. 

Such recreation helps considerably towards the desired end, viz., 
manipulation of the clay and cylinder rolling. The children are 
not yet too old to enjoy games of this kind, and their opportunities 
for such fun are less frequent at this period than before ; on the 
other hand, the teacher must not overlook the important fact that 
these suggestions for recreative modelling are not prescribed as an 
integral item in the syllabus : they are merely indications of the 
sort of channel into which such activities may be profitably directed. 

The cylinder produced in the hands can hardly be expected to 



maintain perfect symmetry, because it is difficult to keep the whole 
of' the clay uniformly under treatment. As the lower end dangles 
and is twisted about by the rolhng of the upper half in the hands, 
it tends to become elongated by its own weight, thus reducing the 
diameter of all but the lowest end. This is especially the case 
if the clay is very soft and the bulk at all large. 

So soon, then, as the pupils appear able to do this manipulation 
fairly well,' other methods may be taught. Let them place the sphere, 
after a few rolls in the hands, and while it is stiU fairly thick, upon 
the modelling board and arrange the hands as in the illustration 
(Fig. 20). Then roll backwards and forwards upon the board, 
giving the hands an outward movement at the same time, so that 

Fig. 20. 

as the diameter of the cylinder decreases and its length increases, 
the whole surface of the clay receives treatment. If these direc- 
tions are followed, a very fair degree of success ought to be assured 
after very little practice. 


The objects prescribed for further practice in cylinder rolling 
may be classified as those requiring some definite addition of mass 
to complete them, and those made from the one amount. We will 
consider the latter group first, as they are generally the more simple. 

The Round Ruler is obviously the most regular in form of all 
those so prescribed, the only additional action required after the 
cylindrical shape is obtained is that its ends should be trued up. 
this should be done, not by cutting with a tool, but by takmg 
up the cylinder in both hands and smartly tapping each end upon 



the modelling board, giving the whole a final rolling to finish it off. 
This process may not give such well fashioned ends as by 
trimming with a knife, but it should not be overlooked that such 
square cut ends are not a sine qua non of a round ruler. The 
effectiveness of such an instrument is judged by a reference to its 
cylindrical surface alone, and so, after all, the appearance of the 
ends need have no more than a passing consideration. 

The Candle and Night Light. Here the upper end will need 
to be slightly concave, or more or less conical, according as it has, 
or has not, been used. This is modelled quickly by a few strokes 
of the fingers, but the principal concern will be " How are we to 
arrange for the provision of a wick ? " To thin out the clay in 


order to represent this is useless, for such representation is not 
realistic, nor is it at all permanent. A better way is to take a small 
length of string, make a slight depression at the required spot 
with a match stick, and insert the end of the string, a very little 
pressure being then sufficient to close up the cavity around the 
wick, and so secure it. 

The introduction of such adventitious aid gives realism to 
the model — a factor of considerable importance to the pupils — 
and makes the work easier. A certain liberty in choosing materials 
fosters resourcefulness, and helps to widen the children's outlook. 
For while we, as teachers, may be concerned primarily with modelling 
in clay, yet we must bear in mind the educational aspect of our 
handwork. The medium that accomplishes each task most rapidly 
and with the least effort, and at the same time opens a fresh field 
for discovery to the child should be utilized, and its adaptation to 
further purposes should be encouraged. 


The Garden Roller. This, again, is a regular cylindrical form 
with a simple framework added. The framework could not be 
constructed easily in clay, and, if it were, the model would be too 
little to be " worked," but a few kindergarten sticks, held together 
with a strong adhesive such as seccotine, or Le Page's liquid glue, 
or even secured with small pins, is sufficient for the framework, 
and the model, when completed, can be rolled. 


In considering models requiring additions of mass to give them 
their true character, it is well to emphasize the importance of 
observing strictly the fundamental process involved in clay model- 
ling, viz., that of building. Cutting away, as in sculpture, is the 
reverse process, and should never be resorted to, at any rate, in 
an elementary stage of the work. Whether the teacher approves 

Fig. 2L 

or disapproves of the teaching of technique, it is neither fair to the 
scholars nor to those who may teach them in the future to admit 
methods tliat must be unlearned later on. 

The Rolling Pin usually requires handles — the modelling of which 
admits of two methods. The handles may either be built upon the 
end of the ruler by additions to its mass, or, if thought fit, they may 
be impressed out of the cylinder, as in the illustration (Fig. 21). 
If the former plan be followed, take the bulk of clay required for 
each handle in the hand, shape it, and then work it into position. 

The Colour Tube lends itself more readily to the method of " pinch- 
ing out " frcnn the cylinder, the shaping of the capsule end 
denianding nnich greater care than is required for the lower end. 

Garden Setting Stick consists of a cylindrical body, surmounted 
by a handle, and this must be modelled by making additions to 
the main part. 

Handles of Tools. Instructions as to procedure here will, of 
course, be determined very largely according to the particular 
shape of the handle under consideration. Sometimes a depression 


exists around the body of the handle, and this may be made by 
exerting extra pressure with one or two fingers of iDoth hands as 
the clay is being rolled between them. Tapering handles may 
either be rolled out, or even slightly pressed out, as is suggested in 
the making of conical forms. 

The insertion of turning marks upon such handles, made with 
the help of a lathe, is sure to attract the attention of certain children, 
who will wish to add them to the model. Without unnecessarily 
damping their enthusiasm the teacher should try to persuade them 
that correctness of form is much more desirable than the production 
of unnecessary details. 


Most of the forms suitable for study at this stage are more spherical 
than cylindrical, but the cucumber, if having a few irregularities, 
is certainly of the cylindrical type. However, since only a few 
good examples are available, whatever the pupils are able to secure, 
provided they are reasonably easy, should be accepted as models 
for the lesson. 

The banana, while it cannot be regarded as of the cylindrical 
type, is fairly regular, and so could be included here for study. 
The only proviso to be made is that the child should examine his 
specimen carefully to discover the number of fiat faces. Then, 
having modelled the cylinder and formed the tapering ends, he 
may proceed to finish it off by an even pressure of finger or thumb 
along the length of the model to get some resemblance to the flat 
surfaces of the banana. 


The Small Cylinder or Thread. The thread is merely a cylinder 
of much reduced diameter. After rolling to produce a cylinder, 
the process must be continued as shown in Fig. 22 — until the desired 
uniformity and thickness are obtained. The thread need not be 
of any great length ; indeed, it cannot be, for the small palms can 
only accommodate a little at a time. 


Worm, Snake, etc. This thread being produced, the ends may 
be tapered and the whole twisted about to represent a crawling 
worm. One end slightly thickened gives us a snake, and other 
slight alterations lead to a variety of models. 

Hooks. Butchers' hooks are a favourite study, while allied with 
these are various examples required for domestic use, as, for example, 
the hook used for suspending the kettle over the fire, the hooked 
fastening of a soldier's belt or a cricket belt, and even such hooks 
as are required on dresses. 

Chains. The making of chains follows in natural sequence, 



and many examples can be brought along for practice — dog chains, 
watch chains, those used as an additional security to our doors, and 
even surveyor's chains, especially if the school has one in its equip- 
ment for geography. Then, at the close of the lesson, the work of 
the whole class may be marshalled into two or three groups, and the 

Fig. 22. 

children may proceed to link up their models to make another 
chain like that before them. 

The railway waggon coupling ought not to be forgotten, but 
in this case a sketch is necessary. The teacher had better supply 


tliis on the blackboard, for children ought not to be encouraged to 
run into danger cvvu in the jMusuit of information. 


Bending and shaping the pliable clay is a very interesting and 
effective way of teaching the correct form of symbols. The black- 
board should display these figures conspicuously and clearly. 



Then, as the teacher points out the hne and follows its course with 
the finger, the pupils may also follow with the disposition of their 
threads. The curves being necessarily bold, mistakes of shape are 
detected more easily- — and just as easily corrected ! If it is desired 
that the pupils should maintain a uniformity in their writing, no 
better means of bringing home to them the particular form of a 
capital letter or a figure can be devised. This method is also 
applicable to the teaching of such symbols as those we use for denot- 
ing sterling, dollar, and clef. When Guy Fawkes' Day arrives, 
the same method will show us how to make Catherine wheels and 
crackers, while in the Nature Study lesson, a beehive of the old, 

Fig. 23. 

straw-thatch pattern is quickly made and, what is more, produces 
a striking and effective model. 

The Lifebuoy can be made by combining a very large and a 
comparatively small thread. For the body, fashion a circular 
ring from a cylinder, and then taper out the outer circumference by 
pressure. The lifeline attached to it is a very thin thread loosely 
laid on. If it is found to be rather an awkward task to make a 
thread sufficiently fine to compare satisfactorily in size with the 
body, a piece of thin string may be made to serve the purpose. 
If string is used it will be possible to show how the lifebuoy is thrown 
out to save life, and how the rescued person is hauled to shore. 


Egg-shaped or ovoid fruits and vegetables were prescribed for 
study in the junior course, and so they arise here more or less 
as revisional work. Probably no example will occur that may be 
fashioned solely by rolling, but in nearly every case the characteristic 
features will have to be shown either by depressions and markings, 
as in the potato and plum, or by additions to the bulk as in the 
lemon and bulbs. The methods as shown in previous examples 

W. P. A. 


should be followed, but a much closer approach to the natural 
form ought to be expected (Fig. 23). 

Delicate markings are always exceptionally attractive to little 
children, who seem prone to underestimate the main traits, and to 
overrate the importance of features of a minor character. Without 
resort to severe methods of repression, the teacher will probably 
feel the necessity of throwing all the weight of his influence against 
this tendency in favour of obtaining what he believes to be the 
greater essential — true form. Remember, however, that violent 
eruptions do not assist the march of progress so much as the more 
humdrum methods working little by little and advancing one step 
at a time ; the child nature must be directed, not thwarted. 

On the outside of the lemon are innumerable pittings, while on 
the bulbs there are many lines which are just as difficult to repre- 
sent. If the child wants to gratify the desire to include these on 
his models he should, for the present, most certainly be allowed 
to do so, but only after he has satisfied his teacher that a good 
reproduction of the natural form has first been obtained. 


Revisional exercises of all the forms previously dealt with should 
be taken at least once during the term. 

As the children may be expected to be more advanced so should 
these forms be reproduced now with greater facility and with more 
perfect results. But time need not be spent unduly on the attain- 
ment of perfection : enough should be left in each lesson for the free 
play of the children's individual ideas. The production of possible 
developments arising out of these forms should be permitted 
immediately the teacher has satisfied himself that sufficiently 
accurate spheres, cylinders or threads, as the case may be, have 
been produced. 


Nine-pins are interesting examples for many reasons. The body 
should hrst be shaped, and then the sphere. The neck is added to 
the body and finally the ball affixed to that, and all indications of 
joints smoothed away. That done, the whole nine-pin should be 
trued up, and possibly the "turning marks" and painted bands 
indicated. It is not expected that these toys will exceed 5 inches 
in height : the ball of clay provided may, perhaps, not permit of 
a larger model, while even if large masses can be provided, the 
resulting work may become unwieldy for small hands. 

Before the lesson closes, in accordance with the spirit of the 
scheme, the children may be permitted to group their models as 
if ready for a game. No time is really lost if, by such divergences, 
the children leave a lesson filled with enthusiasm and eager 
anticipation for the next. 


Towel Roller. After the rolling of the cylinder, the ends must be 
finished off with their usual appurtenances. The methods suggested 
for the construction of the rolling-pin should be referred to. 

Bobbins and Reels. Each consists of a cyhndrical body with a 
superimposed i im ; here there should be no hesitancy about 
method. The rim must be added as a thread, and when in position, 
shaped into the particular form demanded by the object. As 
progress is made in modelling, the correct technique of adding, 
rather than squeezing out, becomes imperative, and for that reason 
one would counsel the former method ah initio. 

There are many varieties of bobbins, and scholars may be per- 
mitted to borrow from one another as the work proceeds, so that 


every member of the class has the opportunity of modelling as 
many forms as possible. 

Again, in dealing with such objects, exact reproduction, size for 
size, contour for contour, may reasonably be demanded, and that 
being so, the pupils should be expected to compare their work 
with the model, and rely upon themselves for criticism. 

Dumb-bell. The cylindrical handle will have to be slightly 
tapered at either end, while the spheres can be given their approxi- 
mate form if they are flattened by compression between the palms. 

Indian Club. It is advisable to secure, if possible, a short 
specimen rather than one with a long tapering handle. An elon- 
gated model tends to be very unwieldy, and no child likes to see 
a lack of stability in his work when it is completed. 

The Horse Shoe should be made from a long cylinder of clay. 
As it is being bent round into the characteristic shape, it should be 
flattened by pressing the thumb along it. The final markings, 


e.g., nail holes, can be inserted last of all by such a simple tool as 
a match stick. 

Nature Forms will consist for the most part of large forms already- 
dealt with either in the preceding terms of the present course, or 
in the junior stage of our modelling. As these objects are bold 
rather than intricate they should present no great difficulty, and 
hence better results may be looked for. 


Simple Arrangements. Once or twice in the term, it may be 
deemed advisable to have a formal revision lesson on spherical 
models. That being so, a smaller model, say that of a large marble, 
may be prescribed as sufficiently large for our purpose. While 
being made, some provision should be devised for their further 
utilization. For example, occupants of each desk may group 
their work after this fashion. Four marbles may be piled up, 
and they should be required to discover how many are necessary 
to make a stable base. On increasing the number in the base by 
one they should find what the possible number superimposed is 
increased by. Such an investigation might be continued until a 
base of 5 or 6 has been reached. 

Again, finger depression exercises are always enjoyed, especially 
when they lead to such realistic forms as biscuits and buttons ; 
but perhaps the prime favourite of all these exercises is the modelling 
of a conventional floral pattern (Fig. 24). 

Arrange three or more spheres at suitable distances from one 
another, then press the forefinger into the body of each, and when 
a sufficiently deep impression has been made, stretch the mass 
towards the desired point, towards the centre or away from it, 
increasing the downward pressure in the process. Each sphere 
should be so treated, not raising the finger until the movement 
has been completed. Then a small sphere added to the centre 
completes the design. 

The Prince of Wales' Feathers is another attractive device ; its 
formation is sufficiently obvious from the illustration. 

Since this plan of stretching under pressure imposes great strain 
upon the cohesion of the clay, it is obvious that the material must 
be in a very plastic condition to afford the most satisfactory results. 
The clay must be well kneaded together and soft, while the tip of 
the finger should be damped before each operation. 

Rubber Heel Pads may be produced by evenly depressing a 
fairly large sphere, first into the shape of a flat cheese and then 
by continued pressure to a flat disc of the required thickness. The 
rounded outline of the edge is given easily by rolling the disc, 
supported between finger and thumb, on the board. The 
characteristic markings are made by any simple tool that is 




Even though the pupils are now at least a year older than when 
doing the junior course, sufficient opportunity for free modelling 
must still be provided in our course of work, and for these reasons — 

{a) Increased facility of manipulation means so much more 

pleasure in concrete representation, because ideas are now embodied 
more rapidly, and, hence, much more satisfyingly. 

(b) It is a form of self-revelation that ought not to be ignored. 
Mental impressions are inevitably as varied as the minds impressed, 
and adults are apt to be forgetful of the fact that there may yet 
be other ways of looking at things in addition to the one that 
appears so obvious to them. Still more important, however, is 


the fact that, because of greater opportunities for experience, there 
must necessarily be an enormous gulf between adult and infant 
impressions of the same story. 

(c) That being so, what other facilities have we in school for 
understanding the working of a child's mind, and among them, 
what media give opportunities equal to those of plastic clay for 
self-expression ? 

(d) A sympathetic study of child nature is involved in this 
work, and this offers us a wide scope for very profitable observation, 
and a valuable field for practical psychology — for here one comes 
in contact with first hand impressions of the child's own ideas and 
his struggling efforts at their presentation. 

(e) Scope for the exercise of the social instincts is not the least 
valuable of the benefits derivable, for though some topics may be 
capable of individual expression, the majority of them are too full 
for this, and require that a group of children shall work together 
towards the realization of the desired end. A foreman for each 
group is necessary not only to superintend the assemblage of 
the parts, but to subdivide the labour and direct the communal 
industry. Frequently such posts are allotted with advantage 
to the older members of the class — the dunces — who while not able to 
compete with the brighter ones at number reading or spelling, are 
very frequently excellent at handwork. 

The dullards may thus discover that after all school has some- 
thing of interest to Ihem. Success at one subject has frequently 
brought confidence and led to a more hopeful application of effort 
to others, to the advantage of the individual and the relief of his 


The liistorical episodes are the handiest and perhaps the most 
desirable subjects for initial experiments in free co-operative 
modelling, but, as was pointed out in the previous stage, some 
study of the necessary details ought to precede the more ambitious 
group representation. 

Let us take the death of Becket (second term's work) as the 
subject of our lesson. Here the primary factor in a concrete and 
effective representation of the story depends upon certain con- 
stituents of the background. These we cannot choose but model 
from the most reliable data. Their grouping is a detail and may 
well be left to the individual fancy, but the models themselves, 
conveying as they do certain historical facts inseparable from a 
proper consideration of the story, may not be left to chance. 

Where shall we obtain, then, such details as will assist us in 
the creation of the correct atmosphere ? Our first resort must be 
to the means at the disposal of the children, their history readers, 
and in choosing the death of Becket for our modelling it is assumed 



that a picture of this incident forms one of the ilhistrations there. 
This will afford particulars of such details as altar, altar cross, 
books, candlesticks, censer, crosier and mitre, the dresses of the 
priests as well as the accoutrements of the soldiers. 

Suggestions for the construction of chairs and altar may next be 
invited. Doubtless some would prefer to make these things in 
paper, or thin card ; others would continue to use clay ; while it 
may even be hinted that the altar could be represented very easily 
by piling up a few small cardboard boxes. -At any rate, there 
remain the other and much more suitable subjects for our present 


modelling, viz., the altar furniture and the equipment of the actors, 
and these should now be modelled. 

While the children are employed in making these, the teacher 
should prepare a background for the scene : chalk and charcoal 
upon brown paper give an effective drawing of the pillars and 
curtains, without demanding much skill in scenic painting. 

Now comes an opportunity for preliminary grouping. With 
the scene fixed in position and the altar raised, the examples most 
nearly approximating to a suitable scale may be brought forward 
and placed in position. So that no child may feel that his work 
has been rejected, each sectional captain should assemble the models 
of his group to constitute other groups, and so the lesson is helped 
towards a fitting climax. 

But so far we have dealt only with accessories ; the action 
of the story has not yet had due attention ; in fact, it must be 


postponed to a following lesson. When the children are about to 
attempt the modelling of the human form it will be advisable for 
the teacher to give a demonstration of a simple method of represen- 
tation. Clay legs are not usually sufficiently stable for the purpose, 
and so the whole human form must be modelled much more solidly, 
and we cannot do better than follow the methods of the craftsmen 
who modelled the old Chelsea pottery. Here the legs stand out 
but slightl}' from a supporting background, so we will have a cylinder 
of clay of suitable length, mark off the upper half for the trunk, 
and pinch out the two legs from the lower part without, however, 


separating them entirely from their support. The head may now 
be modelled and fixed upon the shoulders : model the arms, damp 
the surfaces of contact, press the added part tightly home, and then 
smooth all joints, so that these parts look as if they are part of 
the greater mass. 

The usual tool — a pointed match stick — must now be employed 
to make whatever markings are required to indicate parts of armour, 
or clothing, and also the features of the face. Lastly, the swords 
and spears may be added. These are not easily rendered in clay, 
but are much more readily and effectively furnished by the 
employment of kindergarten sticks and paper. 

You must not expect to find the figures so modelled satisfying in 
every detail, nor must you be surprised if they vary considerably 
in size. There will surely be both pigmies and giants among them, 
as well as men of medium stature, but the question influencing you 


in passing judgment is " Does the work represent honest endeavour, 
and do the models bear some resemblance to the figures they are 
intended to represent ? " If so, they will answer the purpose 

The conclusion of the lesson can now take the form of dramatic 
representation. Each of the children chosen approaches the stage 
in turn, fixes his figure in position, and repeats the necessary dialogue 
until the climax is reached and the curtain falls. 

But it may be urged that this is not a good example of self- 
expression, because the pupils have been largely guided by the 
picture illustration in the book. This is true, but such aid was 
seized upon because it led to a correct knowledge of the accessories. 
With this at our disposal, we can confidently take another scene, 
from the same period but not illustrated, and give the children a 
reasonable chance to express themselves effectively. Such a story 
as the death of Becket, should be followed by the penance of Henry 
II, or Henry's grief at the rebellion of his sons, etc., or stories of 
which the pupils have no preconceived notions to influence them, 
or pictures to give them a ready-made presentation. 

The subjects proposed under the head of literature embrace 
very many scenes, and it may be suggested as suitable for our purpose 
that if the whole class were subdivided, giving each group a choice 
as to which they would prefer to model, more ground would be 
covered. Healthy criticism by groups of each other's work might 
be encouraged ; in doing this the children will learn how to gather 
their ideas and form opinions. Also, with these models at one's 
disposal, each story could be retraced, and the success or otherwise 
of the modelling be put to the test. 

Geography. The method suggested for modelling relief maps 
is placed, for convenience, in the section dealing with the work of 
the upper intermediate group, and readers are asked to turn to 
page 63 for guidance upon this subject. 

Observational n^odclling is also dealt with in that section for 
similar reasons. 




The sequence of work suggested in the syllabus for this stage 
marks a step in advance, of course, but not so much in respect 
of any new subject prescribed nor in any particular aspect of tech- 
nique, but merely in the scope of the modelling attempted. It 
is to be expected that the children's increasing experience will 
enable them to accomplish with much greater ease, objects similar 
to, and perhaps a httle more difficult than, those already attempted 
in the previous stages, and that the work should now begin to reach 
a considerable degree of accuracy both as to form and finish. 


An increasingly large number of objects is required as subjects 
for study, and during each lesson each child will be allowed to 
model as many as possible, the only limiting factors being his own 
abihty and the length of time at his disposal. Since this is so, 
a box for the storage of articles brought for modelling is impera- 
tively necessary. In fact, good storage is to be regarded as an 
essential part of the equipment for all classes in the upper part of 
the school. For various reasons the children may not be able 
to bring the required objects just when they are wanted, or they 
may not be of any further use to them after the lesson has concluded, 
and so they may just as well be stored away for the benefit of 
successive classes. Besides, such a large number of objects is 
required that it is very advisable to solicit the help of the class, 
asking them to watch for and also to bring, as occasion offers, 
whatever seems to them to be suitable for modelling, whether 
found in the scheme or not. In this way new ideas may be incor- 
porated into the syllabus, for the children's experience of the 
modelling course is, in its way, just as valuable as the teacher's, 
as they have been through the mill ; they should, by this time, have 
some good idea as to what other objects are also suitable for study. 


The fundamental principle underlying all work must be that of 
building, i.e., of adding to the bulk to produce the desired form. 
Exercising the judgment to the utmost nicety in the determination 
of the required mass, its method of application, and careful adjust- 
ment of moulding on, and finishing off, the surface with the fingers 
alone to secure the desired result — these are the aims to be kept 
before one continually. 





Intermediate Grade {b). Age 10. 

First Term. 

Second Term. 

Third Term. 


The Cylinder. 

The Cone. The Rectangular Prism. 


(a) Colour Tube (whole 

Glass stoppers. Cart- Tablet of Soap, Book 

and part used). 

ridge. Candle holder, (closed). Purse, Letter 

Building Forms — 

Cotton Bobbin. 

Easel Peg, Safety Ink Weight, Tinned Loaf, 

V\ hip Top, Cork 

Bottle, Funnel, Cham- Sponge Cake, Cocoa 

(a) Fashioned Objects. 

(used), Bail, Chim- 

pagne Cork, Toy Tin, Box of Matches 

(b) Natural Objects. 

ney Pot, Bonbon, 

Trumpet, Oil Can, (partly open). Knife 

Clothes Peg. 

Peg Top, Cow's Horn. Handle (square). Ink 

Bottles, Whistle, 

i Bottle (square). 

(easy examples). 

Necks of large 


(6) Apple, Tomato, 

Chinese Lantern 

Rosebud, Pea Pod. 

Marrow, Lemon, 

(Christmas Cherry). Broad Bean. 


Chestnut, Brazil Nut. Kidney Bean. 
Potato (irregular). Tulip 
Bud, Crocus (closed). 


1 . Helmets, Swords, and 

Hats, Shoes, Puffles, and 

Articles of dress of the 

I —Individual. 

other weapons of 

other articles of dress 


the period. 

of the period. 

Block, Axe, etc. 

From Pictures, 

Mace, etc. 

Verbal Description, 

B.B. sketches. 

2. Excalibur, Book. 

Wallet, Knife, Money 

Shields, Sword Handles, 

Bags, Scale Pans. 

Hat, Fountain Head. 

II. — Co-operative. 

» The Brave Men of 

(a) Queen Elizabeth and 

(a) Execution of Charles I, 



Cromwell dissolves 

(a) History. 

The Princes in the 

Drake on Plymouth 




The Plague — Plague 

Chained Bible. 



A Martyr at the 


Seven Bishops sent to 


Landing of Pilgrim 


[b) Literature. 

(b) The Voyage of the 

(b) The RedCrossKnight. 

(b) Rhoderick Dhu and 


Robin Hood. 


Morte d' Arthur. 

Story of Shylock (M. 

Marmionand Douglas. 

Caedmon and St. 

of v.). 

Story of Richard II. 



(c) Geography. 

(c) Firth of Forth. 

(f) Peninsula of Galloway. 

(c) Peninsula of Fife. 

Firth of Clyde. 

,, ,, Cantire. 

Basin of Forth. 

(d) Observation. 

(d) Things seen in a Con- 

(d) Things seen in an 

(d) A Plumber's Tools. 

fectioner's Shop. 

Ironmonger's Shop. 

A Paperhanger's Tools. 

Things seen in a To- 

Things seen in a Sad- 

A Navvy's ,, 

bacconist's Shop. 

dler's Shop. 

A Gardener's „ 

Tools in Father's 

A Blacksmith's Tools. 

Cycle Bag. 

A Carpenter's Tools. 

A Scout's Equipment. 

N.B. {a) Drawing both in Pencil and Brush will follow all modelling from Objects. 

(b) Memory modelling will alternate with modelling from Objects as often as practicable, 

especially during the concluding portion of the lesson. 

(c) In all co-operative modelling the children will be encouraged to use the media that is best 

adapted for the purpose. 
((/) It is most desirable that they should begin to use a sketch book, in which are recorded 
sketches of things required for future modelling lessons, e.g., Helmets of different periods. 


Additions may be made only after careful investigation of the 
suspected deficiency. As to the method of apph'ing these additions, 
it has been found best to incorporate them somewhat after this 
fashion. The estimated quantity required for some one particular 
feature is taken from the spare clay upon the table, then rolled 
between thumb and finger to exclude air and so to reduce it to a com- 
pact body, such movements giving it a spherical or slightly elongated 
cylindrical form. This should now be applied on the tip of the 
forefinger to the centre of the gap it is required to fill, and pressed 
in by a smoothing motion, first to one side then in the opposite 
direction, but all such work depends to a very large degree upon 
the character of the feature under treatment. The great point upon 
which emphasis is laid is that clay should not be added here or there 
without any regard to the production of a particular form. WTiat- 
ever is done must be accomplished with the least possible error, 
and that involves careful planning and intelligent thinking. 


Thus, it is seen that the co-operation of the judgment with the 
action of the fingers is most essential : so much so that if careful 
oversight on the part of the teacher has been exercised during the 
progress of the pupil through the foregoing stages, correct methods 
and procedure should now be coming to him as second nature, 
as it were, and he should be capable of applying these without 
any particular difficulty or special effort. 

Right methods of work add pleasure to the lesson and render 
the accomplishment of the task more orderly and much easier 
of attainment, and yet to secure them there is no need for one to 
advocate the introduction of cut and dried exercises of the ancient 
drill type. The atmosphere created by the teacher's interest 
and oversight in all that is being done, is alone quite sufhcient for 
the purpose. All the good that should come from an experience 
of the preliminary courses may be absolutely dissipated by care- 
lessness, or lack of proper oversight, or permission to do work in 
any way, and by such laxity a great handicap is unconsciously 
being placed upon the pupils' success in the subsequent stages of 
the work. To illustrate this one may instance such a homely 
example as the holding of the pen in writing. No one nowadays 
wishes to devote much time to the instruction of one fixed method 
of pen-holding preparatory to copy-book work. All that is really 
necessary is that, right from the outset, the children be watched 
and encouraged to grasp the pen in such a way as to secure the 
greatest facility in its use. Granted that clumsy holders sometimes 
produce as good penmanship as the others, the real test comes in 
the upper classes, when not only legibility is required, but also 
much more important qualities — speed and endurance. Then 
it will be found that these factors belong in the main to those who 



have acquired good methods of tool manipulation ; it is so in clay 
modelling, so far as methods of work are concerned. Modelling 
tools are not advocated as a necessity at this stage ; rather it is 
more important that all the modelling should be done, as far as 
possible, by the fingers alone. The forefinger and thumb are the 
best and most useful modelling tools. The modeller must be 
encouraged to depend upon these, and these alone, and it is in the 

Fig. 25. 

use of the fingers that the inculcation of right methods of work is 
now advocated. 


The Cylinder, prescribed for the first term's work, is included 
in order to link up the new work with the old. In schools where 
a change of teachers accompanies the promotion of a class, it is a 
good thing for the pupils to have a chance of showing their skill 
before their new master ; but where such changes do not take place, 
it is unnecessary. Those who have worked through the previous 
syllabus may proceed at once to the object modelling (Fig. 25), 
only the new comers being shown the manipulations required to 
produce the fundamental form. 



Many objects will be reminiscent of the former course, but as 
soon as possible, as the pupils are able, the work should be varied, 
for we do not want the children to feel that they are still doing 
the old work, when they know they are in a higher class. For 
example, the colour tube may now te presented as a battered speci- 
men instead of a full tube, but reels and bobbins ought soon to be 
discarded, and corks should be such as have been rendered useless 
as stoppers. Champagne corks and others of a like character 
presenting plenty of variety of contour are splendid models. When 
chimney pots are to be modelled, a week's notice should be given 
so that the pupils may have ample opportunity to observe these, 
and record sketches in their note-books. Necks of bottles provide 
a wide scope for work and for the varying ability of the class to 
be shown in the many designs. Such a subject is best postponed 
for the final lessons of the term, and while it is desirable to allow 
the pupils to make a choice as to what models they study, yet the 
most difficult examples, such as mineral-water bottle or a syphon, 
should be strictly reserved for the most competent modellers. 

Modelling Natural Objects. It may seem somewhat an unnecessary 
repetition to prescribe an apple for modelling at this stage, but 
any one experienced in such work knows how difficult it is to repro- 
duce natural objects satisfactorily. However elaborate and full 
the course may be of excellent fashioned articles, it is not wise to 
omit modelling from Nature. Whatever else may be omitted with 
advantage, this must be retained. Nor should the pupils be allowed 
to feel that such simple, regular forms are easy of accomplishment, 
and hence call for no particular care. On the contrary, these 
specimens will always be the most difficult the modeller has to 
copy, and will demand the utmost concentration of thought, 
observation and skill, if good work is to result. 

The tomato, marrow and cucumber are probably the more 
irregular of the group, and in modelling these irregularities, it 
should now be more and more firmly required that such excrescences 
be added to the basal regular form. Careful judgment is required 
in determining the amount of mass to be superimposed and in its 
actual application. 


The Cone is, gronutnculiy, allied to the cylinder, and it will 
simplify our teaching of this new form if we assume that it derives 
from the cylinder. Instead of continuing the forward and back- 
ward rolling upon parallel planes, incline the hands gradually 
to one side, when the rolling motion will tend to thin out an end 
of the cylinder to a point, and thus produce a cone. 

The pupils may find this exercise somewhat tedious, and be 
inclined to tire quickly. To maintain interest and to encourage 


them to persistent effort, urge them to produce as many forms 
derived from the cone as they can remember. This necessitates 
the preparation, in the first instance, of a number of fairly regular 
cones, and thus provides the desired exercise, as well as many 
suggestions of objects for future use. Some such objects may be 
offered by the pupils at this lesson as — witch's hat, top of a pillar 
(say of a tramway standard), volcano, Vesuvius firework, etc., 
in addition to many examples of toys and Nature forms. Thus 
the class has ample preparation for the next stage. 


Fashioned Objects. There is really very little need for further 
directions in the modelling of the prescribed objects, for the princi- 
ples and methods of work will continue as on former lines, except 
that the form chiefly involved is conical (Fig. 26). 

Modelling Natural Objects. Buds and opening flowers are the 
only conical objects prescribed, and these are all fairly simple 
to make ; but to amplify the study, nuts and seed vessels are 
suggested as suitable. 

The Chinese Lantern or Christmas Cherry is by far the most 
ambitious exercise and may easily prove to be one of exceptional 
difflculty to many. The work will be improved if the children are 
shown how to make the principal form first, and then how to add 
the sharper edges. As for the stalk, it is advisable to omit that 
until the cherry is nearly complete, and has been placed on the 
modelling board for the final touches. 


The Rectangular Prism. Perhaps the best and most direct way 
of securing this, and at the same time avoiding temptation to 
objectionable cutting and carving, is to model a cylinder of the 
reqviired mass, and after flattening the ends on the modelling boards, 
proceed to flatten the sides also in the same way. Tap the cylinder 
along its whole length uniformly, then reverse so that the flattened 
side is uppermost, and repeat the process until these two faces are 
fairly flat and in parallel planes. Then turn the bulk through a 
quadrant and repeat the flattening treatment, taking great care 
that the new, the third face, is made at right angles to the other 
two : last of all finish off the fourth face. 

Object Modelling. These should present but few difficulties to 
the pupils : but should afford the utmost pleasure because of the 
comparative ease with which the desired form is secured (Fig. 27). 
Whether the model be an ordinary penny bottle of ink, a purse, or a 
knife handle, there is no doubt about the obvious features that distin- 
guish the one from the other, these articles being fashioned largely 
upon one geometrical form. For this reason the general characteristics 
that make the model tally with the object before the modeller are 



much easier of apprehension. The pupil may be expected to be 
at once his own critic, and be able to see whether he has achieved 
his purpose or not without advice from his teacher. Self criticism, 
when it can be secured upon proper data, is always of more value 
than that which comes from a second person ; and the pupils should 

Fig. 26. 

now be able to pass judgment upon their own work, and not depend 
always and entirely upon tlie verdict of their teachers. 

Natural Objects. These merely continue the work of the former 
terms, and as no new difficulty is prescribed, should afford 
sufficient and reasonable opportunities for a thorough revision of 
modelling from Nature, preparatory to entrance upon the more 
advanced studies of the senior course. 




While the principles upon which this aspect of our study depend 
continue exactly as before, yet considerably less time will be devoted 

f^"^"""^ ""^ 

^r — ^ 

■ // 

•^Tz:. — 1 







! ''/' 



' / 


Fig. 27. 

to expressional modelling than has been given even in the immed- 
iately preceding course. In fact, energy will gradually be turned 
from this subject into the more serious channels, which characterize 
the senior grade. This policy, however, should not be apparent ; 
the change from the play activity to the rnore definite study of fact 



must be gradual, so that while, during the first term, as much 
opportunity for expressional modelling would be allowed as was 
the case in the third term of the previous class, in the second term 
this will be less, and in the last term of the course perhaps only 
one example will be modelled. 

But stronger emphasis should be laid upon the absolute necessity 
for as close an approach to truth as possible, even in recreative 
exercises. The imagination of a child in this stage is not so keen 
as in previous periods, and symbolism is unsatisfying, the great 
desire being for reality. The activity of the mind no longer clothes 


signs with the essential qualities of what they are meant to represent ; 
rather judgment is passed upon llu'm, (kmanding the congruous, 
matter-of-fact features. 


In the representation of historical episodes, we must see to it 
that sufficient preparation of the study of details is made to ensure 
a reasonable approach to exactitude in the assembled scene. For 
example, if the gallantry of Raleigh be the subject for study, it 
will never do to portray the hero in the garb of a Norman warrior 
or a Saxon earl, or in modern clothes, but he must be properly 
arrayed in the shoes, tights, surcoat, ruffle, etc., of an Elizabethan 
courtier. In fact, one great argument for the inclusion of such 
study in this late stage must be its utility in fixing such details 
as are necessary to a proper grasp of historical sequence, and a 


correct understanding of the evolution of things and their relation 
to the social progress of the nation. 

The scholars should be encouraged to provide themselves with 
a note-book in which to draw sketches of historical subjects they 
are able to find ; also they should be urged to take an intelligent 
interest in what they record there by indicating with numbers, 
dates, or other means of classification, the progress during the period 
under observation. A mixed medley is of little value ; but an 
orderly arrangement of what the child has gathered together will 
do much to cultivate a power to group facts logically, a quality so 
essential to success in modern life. 

This pocket book need not be pretentious : one is easily made 
in the ordinary paper-modelling lesson, and it is far better that the 
pupil should make it himself than that he should be provided with 
a more elaborate one from the school stock. He will appreciate 
one made by himself, and be more likely to take care of it, and to 
use it well. 

As for the source of information, there is only one that is really 
effective, and that is one that he can examine on his own account, 
and from which he can make discoveries for himself rather than be 
led to them. First of all, he must exhaust all that lies at hand in 
the school readers and class library. Then he may be shown how 
to explore among the illustrated books accessible in the public 
library — an acquisition of no small gain. A child who has discovered 
the joy of working on his own account, and has gained confidence 
to pursue such an investigation becomes a resourceful, independent 
worker, and is unlikely to lead an aimless adult life. 


During the earlier stages there is no doubt as to the superiority 
of the value of map-modelling over the older method of outline 
map drawing. It has the advantage, possessed by all concrete 
representation, of a greater truthfulness, inasmuch as a good model 
shows vividly the outline, the shape of the land, the relation of 
the land to the water, and the relation of watershed and valley 
to the watercourses, and hence the facilities offered for communica- 
tion and trade. Again, the view of the data thus offered is more 
easily interpreted, more easily grasped in its relative parts, and 
hence is much more likely to appeal to the imagination of the 
individual than, say, a shiny map hung upon the wall. 

But it is approximately true only in proportion as it attains to 
correctness in every detail, and the greatest drawback in obtaining 
this is the difficulty of modelling to scale. This is, of course, next 
to impossible, because the area under consideration at any one 
time is so large, while the variations of elevation are relatively so 

Some teachers of geography advocate the use of different scales, 



one for area and another for elevation, and, if a wide area is being 
covered, such a device produces a very admirable model, so long 
as it is quite understood and the children are not misled. 

In making a clay model, we aim at a rough and ready represen- 
tation of the physical characteristics of a country, more realistic 
than that given by a mere outline drawing, and yet such as will 
enable us to arrive at an intelligent deduction necessary to 
account for the conditions underlying the social life of the 

Construction of the Clay Map. One side of the three-ply model- 
ling board should be painted with one or two coats of quick-drying 
enamel of blue tint. Where economy' must be considered, and 


the subjects for study can also be suitably arranged, it will be 
sufficient if certain portions of the board be painted. 

For outlining the coast, two methods present themselves : either 
to sketch it on the board and then build in with clay, or to dispense 
with all preliminaries and block in the coast direct — a plan which 
perhaps affords the better training. The method of covering the 
whole surface with a thin layer of clay, inscribing an outline in 
this and then removing that part which hides the sea, is full of 
objections, and ought not to find adherents anywhere. 

There are two methods — not equally good, it is true — from which 
we may take our choice, in filling up our outline. The easier, 
perhaps, is to make thin rolls of clay and wind these in and out 
as the coast line suggests. With these pressed down and regarded 
as a basis for our work, we may proceed to include the other details. 
Put the best way, because the most direct, and the one demanding 


most thought at every step, and hence the one calculated to give 
the best educational result, may be described as follows. 

Determine the position of the chief landmarks first, fix their 
position with small masses of clay, and proceed to shape them 
according to their location, keeping the coast line very low — any 
promontory can be added subsequently. Now work backwards 
and forwards between these points, not forgetting to refer contin- 
ually to a printed map. There is more certainty of keeping in 
accurate proportion thus than by working from one standpoint 
only. When the whole of the coastline has been thus blocked in, 
go over it again carefully, comparing it with the map, and make 
such further corrections in detail as are still found to be necessary. 

Any decided elevation, e.g., a mountain mass, must be dealt with 
next. The height to which it ought to be carried is a matter that 
must first be debated, and so determined ; but at this stage of the 
work it is doubtful whether we ought to press accuracy of detail 
too far. The avoidance of absurd exaggeration is as much as can 
be expected as yet. What we really want is such a landmass, 
indicated plainly, as will enable us to give a satisfactory distinction 
to the watersheds and river valleys, and thus a fair degree of slope 
for our rivers to accommodate themselves as they wind their way 
to the sea. 

From this elevation to the sea coast the intervening surface should 
be treated as carefully as possible, and then the river courses made, 
say, with a pin or a pointed lead pencil, at first but slightly marked 
into the clay, but later on, as the sea is approached, the marking 
should be gradually made deeper until the blue of the foundation 
is exposed. The addition of other details is a matter of time and 


The worth of an impression must be judged to a certain extent 
by its availability for expression. Thus we remember things, or 
we forget them, and the value of a good memory cannot be over- 
estimated. What is tme of the abstract is equally so of the concrete, 
though perhaps we are not always willing to allow this. At any 
rate, clay modelling offers peculiar facilities for testing the correct- 
ness of our powers of observation, and a scheme of work in this 
medium ought to provide for such exercises. 

It is advisable to prescribe for a definite period, say once 
a month, some one subject that is well within the daily, or perhaps 
less frequent, experience of every boy, and state that, as occasion 
offers, the class will be asked to model from memory certain objects 
connected with it. Perhaps one month the subject may be a 
boy scout's equipment, while the next month it might be things 
that are seen in an ironmonger's shop, and so on. 

Occasions are sure to arise when a boy thinks he has completed 


the model in hand to his satisfaction, and so, having nothing else 
to do, finds himself idle at the end of the lesson. For such odd 
moments especially, the modelling of things met with in the course 
of our daily experience is extremely valuable, and not only because 
it finds occupation for idle hands, but also because it affords an 
opportunity for strengthening the powers of observation and 

And yet, this aspect of our subject is much too valuable an 
adjunct to be consigned to such spare moments, and such irregular 
occasions. Definite times should occur in the course of the term's 
work when every boy should be required " to cease work " a quarter 
of an hour before " time," and the remainder of the lesson specifically 
devoted to such memory work. 



In the upper grades of the school our work will begin to assume a 
much more serious purpose, and the modelling, no longer included 
as a mere play-activity, must justify itself on other grounds. For 
example, a fuller appreciation of the beauty of form — whether 
in the works of Nature, or in the arts of man's device — and a keener 
sense of touch ought now to be looked for, all of which leads to a 
development of the pupil's artistic perception. Unreasonable 
degrees of success must not be expected immediately, but the 
evidence of an awakening interest ought most certainly to appear 
both in the lad's attitude towards his modelling, and, of course, 
towards his drawing and painting. Some boys will respond in a 
most remarkable manner, others less so, while a residuum may 
prove to be rather deficient and disappointing, but I doubt very 
much if anyone, however spiritless his work may be, deserves to be 
classed with Gallio as " caring for none of these things." The 
joy of construction is too deeply graven in the child's nature, and 
anything that affords it opportunity for expression is all to the good. 
As for the medium itself, it is altogether so responsive, and so strongly 
appealing to his instincts, that the veriest bungler is quite unable 
to resist its charm. 

Now, more than ever before, the class needs careful grouping, 
and the teacher will, perforce, have to take very particular note of 
each child's work, making a careful record of his progress. Praise, 
individually rather than to the class as a whole, is a valuable factor 
in securing the whole-hearted response of the pupil, while it also 
tends to bring the teacher into closer personal contact with the 
child, which is a sine qua non to a thorough understanding, and 
hence, appreciation, of what is done. So, too, the work must 
proceed as far as possible, on individual lines, the pupils being 
expected to make a choice of models from the particular group of 
studies prescribed for the term's work. 


The slab is now a necessity, both to provide a background and 
also to serve as a support, particularly in the case of fragile models. 
Hitherto we have done all our modelling in the round, and without 
any such provision, except in the case of expressional work, where 
the individual figures needed a rough base of clay to support them. 
It is for precisely similar reasons that the slab is required now. 
The superstructure must have a foundation that possesses the same 




Senior Grade (a). Ages 11 and 12. 

First Term. 

Second Term. 

Third Term. 


I. The slab — Methods 

The slab as a back- 

The slab as a back- 

of construction. 



I. — Building Forms, 

Decoration — 

Building forms in Full 

Building forms in Full 

based on 

(a) by finger de- 

ReUef, e.g.. Battle- 

Relief, e.g.. Grave 

(a) Common Objects. 


dore, Shield. Rounder's 

stone. Monument, 

(6) Natural Objects. 

(6) by imposed 

Bat, Notice Board, 

Hassock, Spanner, 

threads and 

Guide Post, Palette, 

Washer, Nut, Horse- 


Motor Warning. Rail- 

shoe, Book (open), 

way Signal, Ml. stone. 

Candlestick, Open 

Boundary Post, Paint 

Book, Inkwells and 

Box, Closed Book. 


2. Nature Studies. 

Nature Studies. 

Nature Studies. 

Mussell Shells (open 

Razor Shell (open and 

Simple closed Euds, 

and closed). 


e.g. — Rose. 

Oyster ditto. 

Ivy Leaf. 


Pea-pod ditto. 

Twigs and dormant 


n.— Revisional Studies. 

(a) Tool-handles, e.g.. 

Doorknobs and ter- 

Easy necks of Bottles. 

(without slab). 

Chisel, Gimlet, etc. 


Summer Fruits and 

(6) Autumn Fruits and 

Winter Fruits, e.g., 

Vegetables, e.g., 


Banana, Tomato, 
Apples, Nuts. 


in. — Creative Forms. 

Simple form hollowed 

Ditto with decorated 

Ditto, Toy Tea Service. 

Simple Pottery. 

by rotated thumb. 


„ ,, Toilet-Table 

Ditto with added stem 


or handle. 


1. Examples of British 

1. Examples of other 

1. Examples of other 


Building, e.g., Crom- 

ancient buildings- 

Ancient buildings. 

lech, Barrow, Stone- 

Egyptian Temple 

Irish Round Tower 

(a) Historical. 

henge and .\vebury. 


and Church. 

Ditto, Saxon or later 

Greek and Roman 

Moslem Minaret. 

work, e.g., Celtic 


Indian and Chinese 

Cross, Stone Coffin 

Pyramids and 


and Egyptian 


Maori Totem. 

Mummy Case. 

Cleopatra's Needle. 

2. Evolution of Offen- 

2. Evolution of Offen- 

2. Evolution of Offen- 

sive Weapons — - 

sive Weapons — 

sive Weapons — 

Prehistoric and An- 

Swords of all per- 

Shafted Weapons. 

cient Axe. 



Arrow, etc. 

(/) Geographic. 

Mediterranean entrance 

Islands of Sicily and 

Black Sea Entrance. 

of Gibraltar Strait. 

Bay of Naples. 

Baltic Entrance. 

(;) Observational. 

A Cobbler's Tools. 

A Tailor's Tools. 

A Bricklayer's Tools. 

Father's Smoking Outfit. 

What Baby uses — • 
Bottle, Dummy, Bib, 
Slipper, Bonnet. 

.\ Child's Toys. 

Things seen at a Dry- 

Things seen at a 

Things a Cyclist or 

salter's. 1 


Motorist uses. 

Things seen at a Chem- 


Things seen on the 

ist's. 1 



{a) Drawing both with Pencil and Brush should follow all modelling from Objects. 

(6) Memory modelling should be prescribed after modelling from the Object as often as 

(c) In Co-operative modelling the children must be encouraged to use the media best adapted 

for the purpose, even though it be another material than clay. 
{d) It is most desirable that every boy should have a note-book in which to record sketches 

of things required for future lessons, especially when research is asked for. 


physical properties as itself, so that in drying, both the model and 
its base may contract as a whole and uniformly. If this is not done, 
and the clay is allowed to dry, the models shrink away from their 
wooden support and fall off. 

It used to be thought that the construction of a properly made 
slab afforded good manipulative experience, and excellent training 
for the eye and the judgment. So it does, but the modern tendency 
is to discount these values after a while, for the repetition of the 
same processes is bound to mechanize the construction and to 
minimize the educational advantages derived from the earlier 
attempts, when all the powers were on the qui vive : the oft-repeated 
task soon degenerates into mere routine. Hence, it is advisable to 
consider at once the various methods of slab construction, and 
without adhering to any one plan in particular, take them all at 
different periods, endeavouring always to use to the utmost the 
educational values underlying each process. Later on, in the 
subsequent stages, we shall regard the construction of the slab 
purely as a mechanical device, and employ either a specially con- 
structed modelling board designed to this end, or introduce strips 
of wood as guides or nmners. 

Methods of Construction. At least three methods of slab con- 
struction are open to us, and perhaps it would be advisable to divide 
the first term's work roughly so that each process is practised 
throughout one month. During the second and third terms these 
methods should be constantly alternated, the teacher prescribing 
sometimes one, sometimes another, while occasionally, as a variant, 
the pupils could be allowed to choose what they regard as the 
readiest, or at least the one they feel most expert at. 

(1) Probably the most mechanical of all these devices is that by 
which the slab is constructed of rolls of clay (Fig. 28a) equal in 
thickness and of the same length, placed side by side upon the 
modelling board. When sufficient are in position, the whole is 
smoothed over by the outstretched thumb, the fist being tightly 
clenched and raised from the slab. This method, employing as it 
does the already acquired experience of cylinder rolling, will 
appeal especially to those teachers who are most concerned for the 
orthodoxy of their steps. 

(2) A second method is to break off a sufficient number of equal 
masses of clay, place them side by side until the whole of the required 
area is covered, and then to press them into one coherent mass of 
uniform thickness (Fig. 286). Again the outstretched thumb is the 
tool for smoothing and reducing the surface : children certainly 
find it easier to pat the slab into shape by the open palm, but it is 
not wise to encourage this for several reasons. Such a method, 
while reducing the general irregularities very effectively, will not 
help very much towards attaining the level surface we want, and 
even then the final smoothing must be done by the thumb. And 

6— (1017) 

D A 



secondly, a supple thumb is of inestimable ad^■antage in the more 
advanced stages, and how is this to be developed and its usefulness 
appreciated except by practice upon all suitable occasions ? Slovenly 
methods are much more easily condoned in junior classes than 

I 1 I I 

eradicated in later years, and so it behoves us to exercise a wise 
and yet critical supervision over the methods at every stage of 
the course. To know when to interfere and when to allow 
the pupil to follow his own natural bent is a problem which 
no formula will help to solve. It is only the teacher's wide 
experience of child nature and his exhaustive knowledge of 


the subject in hand, that can be his unerring guide in all such 

(3) The third and perhaps the best method is certainly the most 
difficult of accomplishment, because it is the least mechanical, 
and involves the exercise of the judgment to a much greater degree 
during the whole of the time the slab is under construction. The 
size of the slab is first of all determined by a rough sketch upon the 
modelling board (Fig. 28c). At each corner of the area thus mapped 
out a small bolus of clay is pressed down and squeezed into position, 
giving it at the same time its correct thickness and squareness on 
its two outside edges. If these four corners are now tested both as 
to alignment and uniformity of depth, the whole of the intervening 
space may be fihed up as in the second method, taking care to 
work all round the outside first and leaving the inner space for 
treatment last of all. The edge may be kept perpendicular and 
square by concerted actions of fingers and thumb, that is, while a 
downward pressure of the thumb levels the upper surface, an 
inward, horizontal movement by the tips of the fingers working 
along the surface of the modelling board, smooths the rough edges 
of the clay. 

When the final smoothing of the surface comes to be undertaken 
a supple thumb is found to be of immense value. As already 
indicated, the fingers should be closed tightly upon the palm, 
while the thumb is outstretched to its utmost, thus throwing its 
apex as far away from the fist as possible. The physical effect 
of this movement will be to curve out the thumb's first joint (Fig. 
28^). Then, lifting the fist so that the knuckles of the second and 
third finger joints are facing downwards and the first joint of the 
thumb is in a horizontal plane, the hand should be lowered till the 
knuckles rest upon the board and the surface of the thumb is pre- 
sented to the clay (Fig 28c). The fist should be rotated outwards 
upon the knuckles as a pivot, and thus the clay slab is smoothed 
over by the thumb. Both hands may work conjointly (Fig. 28/), 
or else while one hand is so employed the other may move the board, 
successively presenting every portion of the slab to this smoothing 
action. If such a plan be pursued, it should be a matter of easy 
accomplishment to finish off the whole of the slab, retaining, at the 
same time, a uniform thickness. Scraping to give a good finish, 
should not be resorted to at this stage, neither should the useof a 
ruler for trimming the edges, nor water for better finish be allowed. 

Water — Its Use and Abuse. The clay will not adhere easily to 
a dry board, but experience teaches that if the clay be reasonably 
soft, sufficient adhesion is obtained to proceed with the exercises 
of this stage. The presence of water, however necessary it may seem 
— and it really is desirable if good, clean habits can be assured — 
affords a great temptation and a ready snare to young folk. It 
is very difficult to keep a large class under such constant and 


effective supervision that the abuse of water does not lead to the 
disfigurement of both person and room, as well as to the almost 
inevitable spoiling of the work. Probably one of the best ways 
to introduce the use of moisture at this stage — and it certainly 
ought not to be postponed— is to provide a small sponge for each 
group of three or four boys. A sufficient number of these sponges 
should be plunged into water, squeezed to expel the greater part 
of the water, and then distributed. The children may be instructed 
in keeping the tips of thumb and fingers clean by slightly brushing 
with the sponge. Grasping a small portion between the thumb 
and index finger as it lies on the table, is the best and most 
economical plan as far as the contained moisture is concerned. 
They already know from experience why such cleanliness is desirable 
for a small piece of clay upon the tip of the linger forms a basis to 

Fig. 29. 

which other particles may cling until the fingers become absolutely 
clogged, and modelling is almost out of the question. 

The Decoration of the Slab. The construction of the slab will at 
first occupy the greater part of the hour's lesson, and if the class 
works intelligently and methodically, the time will have been very 
profitably spent. But what about the remaining minutes of the 
lesson ? These ought to be occupied wisely, two very vital 
conditions being before us to guide our choice of procedure — that 
the interest of the children may be maintained, and that the work 
already accomplished may be connected with the new exercises, and 
hence definite progress maintained. 

The index fingers and the thumbs are the handiest and most 
useful tools one may employ, as we shall see hereafter, and a good 
opportunity now presents itself to train them in suppleness and 
sensitiveness. Formal exercises have but little to commend them- 
selves to the youthful mind, but if we employ them in the attainment 
of some end that appeals to our pupils directly rather than as an 
ulterior motive, we shall at once secure their ready co-operation. 


To this end our slab may now be decorated, or utilized in some 
way while we endeavour to occupy the time that remains in a 
profitable manner. 

{a) Index-finger Exercises. Let us regard the slab as something 
to be made into an inkstand. We shall require one or more grooves 
as rests for pen and pencil, besides other accommodation for ink- 
wells. Pointing the finger as in Fig. 29, draw it along in a straight 
line with even pressure until the required groove is made. Use 
right and left indexes alternately, of course in opposite directions, 
and arrange to have the slab so that the groove runs directly from 
left to right rather than in a line inclined at an angle to your body. 

Fig. 30. 

Commence with the hand you have most skill in using, but do not 
confine your efforts to it alone. Having ploughed out with the 
right index, say, proceed with the left in the opposite direction, and 
so on alternatively, until an even groove has been constructed. 

Again, suppose the slab to be a cupboard, or other door con- 
veniently referred to. Mark out its panels with your match stick, 
and in a similar manner, but this time by contiguous grooves, 
starting and stopping at the places marked, depress the necessary 
area, finally attaining the desirable smooth surface by working 
across at right angles. 

{b) Thumb Depression Exercises. If boys are not acquainted 
with' a bagatelle table, there are plenty of marble games in 
which holes sunk in the ground are a necessary feature (Fig. 31). 
The slab may be regarded as such a surface, and the required 
depressions may now be made after this fashion. 



Place the thumb as in Fig. 30, the lowest part, i.e., the ball of 
its first joint, acting as a pivot, the fingers being clenched tightly 
and removed out of harm's way ; then lower the thumb upon the 
clay and rotate alternately to right and to left with even pressure 
until the desired depth has been attained. Although it may be 

a a 


Q □ 

□ 1 

Q Q 


found impossible to complete the hole without reversing the position 
of the board after each few twists, it is not advisable to keep the 
thumb still while the board is rotated beneath it. Such a procedure 
would mechanize the process and defeat the purpose of the exercise. 

(c) Simple Building Exercises. Scratch on the surface of the clay 
the outline of a door, or better still, regard the slab as a small portion 
of such a door, so that the modelling may be on a large scale. 

In times not so very far distant, a massive door, studded with 



large nails, was considered a very necessary precaution against 
undesirable visitors (Fig. 31). Children may be directed to ancient 
houses locally, where examples of this kind of door may still be 
seen. Mark out the positions of the studs ; then, shaping the correct 
masses between thumb and finger, carefully add them to the slab, 
working them into it so that they are not merely superimposed 
but actually become part of the body of the whole. 

Rhoderick Dhu's " targe, whose brazen studs and tough bull 
hide had death so often turned aside " is another example which 
might follow (Fig. 326). To do this, scratch the circular outline 
of the shield and proceed as above within this limit. Other forms 

of shields, especially those with bosses to protect the fingers when 
grasping the handles, may be asked for as variants. 

A dog collar (Fig. 32a) with brass studs may also suggest itself as 
a suitable exercise, eliciting, after acquaintance with the foregoing 
examples, the reasons which prompted the original enrichment of 
the collar as a means of defence when bear-baiting and dog-fighting 
were looked upon as " noble sport." 

Similarly, too, some parts of a horse's harness (Fig. 32c) may be 
available with its brass ornaments, and the suggestion of the animal's 
armour in the days of chivalry. 

In each and all of these exercises the added structure is not to be 
modelled in a careless, haphazard sort of way. As a preliminary 
step, the boy must work out his scheme of work, indicating with 
some form of stylus upon the surface of the clay, not only the 
position but the correct amount of space to be occupied, i.e., the 
surface area of each addition. It is highly important that the 
slab should be consistently prepared by such drawings, as a method- 
ical first step towards correct modelling. If no such preparation be 
made, or if it be done indifferently, the subsequent work may be 


found occupying a relatively wrong position, or be faulty as regards 
mass, and inevitably this will be followed by breaking down, or 
cutting away the excess — a deplorable mistake and quite wrong 
in technique. 

No clay should be added until the scheme of work has been 
clearly drafted, and until the correct amount of material required 
for that particular feature has been decided. Haphazard guessing 
does not assist in training in the highest morality, and striving after 
the truth should be our aim. If this be remembered, simple 
structures may also be reared upon the slab, e.g., a tombstone, 
ancient cross, etc., as a preliminary to the more definite object 
building taken later in the course. 


A word or two may now be added as to the procedure in modelling 
such objects as are prescribed under this heading. In modelling 

Fig. 33. 

the outside view of a mussel shell, the plan of the rim as it rests on 
the table wiU show the form to be sketched on the slab. The next 
step is to determine the region of greatest elevation ; and that being 
fixed to proceed with the modelling downwards. A small bohis 
of clay should be taken between thumb and finger, kneaded with 
two or three squeezes and put down on the slab in correct position. 
Work this now to give the proper height and then broadly to show 
the true disposition of the ridge. This being satisfactorily settled, 
the sloping sides down to the limits sketched on the slab may be 
gradually filled in, taking the utmost care to reproduce the correct 

If the inside is to be studied (Fig. 33) the first step will be to 
indicate the limit of the upper, outer edge as it overhangs— in 
plan as it were. Then, starting with this region of greatest eleva- 
tion, work the clay on to the slab, remembering always that this 
region is not an isolated point but a rim extending (probably) all 
round the modelling, and that the edge is extremely thin, presenting 
a gradual slope towards the interior. Of course, the exterior face 
falls away an equal amount, but since clay of that required thinness 
would not be equal to the strain, the uppermost fragile edge is alone 
indicated, and the wall is built much more solid, and almost 


perpendicular all round the outside. It is quite understood 
that the inner view alone produces the correct form, the 
outer being merely approximate. 

In all such cases, it will be found a safe rule, after making the 
requisite preliminary sketches, to proceed with your modelling, 
working from the region of greatest altitude. 

The modelling of the oyster, the pea-pod and razor-shell, follow 
on the same lines, while the ivy-leaf may also be regarded as a 
broad shell, open to show concavity. 

A word of caution as to choice of these natural objects may not 
be out of place, particularly with regard to leaves, such as the ivy. 
The pupil should always be directed to bring those leaves that are 
least like pressed leaves. Every example should be curving, and 
with its tissues firm and alive. There is no value in the modelling 
of an absolutely flat leaf, such an example presenting scope for the 
study of outline and not of form. 

Twigs and buds will be regarded as objects in the round, and 
should be worked into correct general form in the hand before 
being placed on the slab. Afterwards the details may be attended 
to with as little help from tools as possible. 

General Remarks on Object Modelling. It should always be 
remembered that the course prescribed as object modelling is 
distinctly understood to be modelling from the object, and not from 
sketches, or pictures, or even from memory. Each group of children 
must have an example of the object readily accessible for reference 
throughout the lesson. Likewise it should be impressed upon every 
child that the exact reproduction of the features of the model, 
placed before him for study, is expected, whether the reproduction 
be of the same size or to any given scale, and no deviation from a 
reasonably perfect copy can be accepted as satisfactory. Of 
course, absolute perfection will never be attained, but while ample 
encouragement should be awarded to all real effort, yet it is not 
by condoning faults, but by calling frequent attention to deficiencies, 
that the pupils will be led to appreciate the beauty of the form 
in all its delicacy and intricacy as it lies before them. If a child 
has been trained to have such a purposeful ambition animating all 
his exercises, the time should shortly arrive when his work alone 
will sufficiently afford him praise or condemnation. When self- 
criticism has been learned, his teacher's comments become more or 
less superfluous. This is a high ideal, I admit, but, nevertheless 
a most laudable one, and surely, therefore, one which should 
commend itself to every earnest teacher. 

(2) Revisional Studies. The reader should consult the references 
in the sections dealing with object modelling in the preceding 

(3) Creative Forms — Simple Pottery. This is dealt with somewhat 
fully in Chapter VII. 



The free modelling lessons will offer some degree of relaxation 
from the strenuous efforts hitherto required in the object modelling, 
and while giving the scholar a more entertaining form of occupation, 
and so securing his interest by reason of the recreative character 
of this work, will nevertheless prove its worth in the splendid 
opportunities afforded for developing manipulative skill and for 
obtaining more thorough acquaintance with the material he is 
called upon to investigate ; also still further it will furnish him with 
data so necessary for a thorough understanding of other class 
subjects. In fact, as an adjunct to the oral lessons, I regard the 
free modelling of historical and other subjects as invaluable. 

The historical topics suggested in the syllabus occur incidentally — 
there is no necessity for prescribing definite instruction in these 
things. For a proper understanding of the facts of history a 
certain amount of detailed knowledge is a very necessary equipment. 

Each child must have a note-book. In it he records at the 
beginning of the term a list of the things he must specifically be 
on the look-out for, e.g., the evolution of offensive weapons as 
suggested for study. The illustrations in his own and other class 
readers are at hand, and will provide material. These he must 
utilize first, sketching both the general and the particular features 
of each weapon. If the teacher inspects the progress of the work 
periodically, he will be able to judge the success or otherwise of the 
child's quest. Where deficiencies occur in the available information, 
he should suggest visits to the free library, to forage there and 
possibly even to enlist the aid of the officials as to choice of books. 
If gaps still exist in the sequence the teacher desires to see, he must 
then supply them on the blackboard from his own collection. 
True, these arc but line drawings, and so only imperfectly convey 
the idea, but the test will come when the child is called upon to 

The Evolution of Offensive Weapons. This has been found to 
be a profitable study, one in which information is readily ob- 
tained and a study offering ample room for classification, a process 
very necessary in all research. If the subject is referred to in 
the history and geography lessons — whenever that is possible — 
no time need be deducted from the modelling lesson for the dis- 
cussion of, or search for, data. The appended line illustrations are 
intended merely as an aid to the teacher hi hlling up the gaps which 
may occur in the boys' note-books, however earnestly they search. 
They are not to be regarded as a short cut to their accumulation 
of information. 

The representation of the needed forms will necessarily be made 
in the round and on the modelling board — no slab being necessary. 
Nor is there any reason why each pupil should model every 
example. Each may be left to try his skill upon those that appeal 

SfeNIOk GRAb£ A. 


most particularly to him. Making a tour of the class, as the work 
progresses, the teacher will probably notice the absence of certain 
models. He should supply these. Then, towards the end of'the 
lesson, certain of the children's work should be selected and grouped 
with the models furnished by the teacher. The pupils should then 
be invited to discuss the probable sequence and so determine the 
evolution of each form. 

Fig. 34. 

The procedure is essentially simple, and nothing should be allowed 
to draw attention from the very elementary aim of this aspect 
of the study, namely, to endeavour to marshal facts into some 
historical order, and to encourage an orderly line of thought in 
every member of the class. This kind of attainment is largely a 
matter of habit, easier to some minds than to others, but it is 
nevertheless a very necessary feature if the facts of history are 
to be properly appreciated. 

The study of sword blades will probably afford but little profit. 



In the first place, there appears to have been only a slight variation 
from the original form, for beyond the single or double cutting edge, 
and the point for thrusting, the only development of this part of 
the weapon was m the length of the blade, which varied according 
to the fashion of the time and the demands of the occasion. The 
immediate purpose of the sword was to strike down an opponent 
either by a slashing cut or a vigorous thrust, and the only other 
consideration was to do this with the utmost effectiveness, sur- 
mounting any and every obstacle, e.g., shield or armour, or whatever 
protection was likely to be in opposition. Again, these sword blades 

Fig. 35. 

are much too long to be reproduced in any reasonable size upon the 
usual modelling boards — another reason for their omission from the 
modelling lesson. But in the case of the hilt it is altogether another 
question. The art of the craftsman was lavished upon this, for 
here he could exercise his ingenuity in design and skill in work- 
manship. When sheathed in the scabbard, the most conspicuous 
part of the sword was the hilt. So the patron came to be more and 
more particular in his taste, for not only did he require a trusty 
blade, with a swaggering hilt, but as much protection, also, for his 
own skin as he coukl possibly get. Thus we find the Romans adding 
a guard, crosswise, where the hilt and blade met. This was at 
first absolutely horizontal, then furnished with curved ends, first 



outwards, then inwards, and afterwards tending to become more 
elaborate according to the fashion of the age. The next step shows 
a curved guard round the knuckles, ultimately being joined to the 

Javclirv Read 


Arrow kcad 

5 Wo I'd 
r\or(AQn Short 5worcl 

5axor^ 5worcl ar\cl Battle Axe 

Fig. 36. 

top of the hilt for greater stability, and so we come to the broader 
guard of the cutlass and the basket hilt of the claymore. Nor 
must we overlook the fact, before mentioned, that when our fore- 
fathers had to contend with armour-clad opponents, no mere light 
cut or thrust would suffice. The most powerful blow, hurled by a 
blade swung by the combined strength of both arms was absolutely 
necessary to bring down an antagonist. 


If a collection of arms is available, either in the local museum, 
guildhall, or armoury, the fullest opportunity will doubtless be 
taken to confirm all these stages of the interesting evolution of 
such weapons. 


Architecture is a subject indissolubly connected with the progress 
of the domestic arts, and social history and geography can scarcely 


ignore some reference to these things. Such simple studies as are 
prescribed for study at this stage have the great advantage of being 
much more easily and effectively modt'lled in clay than in any 
other media employed in educational handwork. 



For the first term we take the beginnings of these things, so far 
as our forefathers are concerned. Simple, upright pillars for sacred 
or memorial purposes are found in many places scattered up and 
down the country, but more impressively perhaps in the ruins at 
Avebury and Stonehenge. These latter constitute a distinct step 
in advance, for here we find a third member supported on the top 
of two uprights, making something like a series of rude entrances. 
In fact this form of doorway seems to have been universal in such 
early civilizations as the Assyrian, Egyptian and Greek. The 
Romans borrowed it, but soon added the arched ceiling, e.g., The 
Arch of Titus. The next step was probably such a ceiling extending 
all round so as to enclose a space, that is, a domed roof, and the 
Pantheon (Hadrian) remains as one of the finest examples of this 

Fig. 37. 

kind of structure the world has ever seen. But at a much earlier 
date than this these great engineers had felt the need for the simple 
rounded arch, one of the most ancient examples, perhaps, being 
that of the Cloaca Maxima, and subsequently it enabled them to 
rear up those wonderful series of arches to support their aqueducts. 

No great difficulty will be met in the modelling of these forms, 
though, perhaps, the dome will scarcely commend itself as a suitable 
subject. But, since the evolution of structures is before us, it 
would not be wise to omit such an example from our lists. 

The Egyptian Temple frontage could be modelled either in the 
flat or upright : if the latter, it will tend to produce a more realistic 
appearance, and possibly will require the co-operation of two or 
more children. 

The modelling of the elementary form of the Greek arch, with 
its massive proportions, will lead to a difficulty arising from the 
character of the subject itself and the medium ernployed, Qlay, 



being soft and plastic, would give way under the weight of the 
block placed on it, so we must imitate the methods of our modern 
builders, who use reinforced concrete to support great weights. 
The illustration (Fig. 38) shows each pillar strengthened by four 
kindergarten sticks, which, thrust into the clay below and above, 
make the structure secure and fairly rigid. If this method is 
considered unsightly— as it undoubtedly is, especially if the true 
appearance of the noble colonnade be remembered— an equally 
effective result may be obtained by thmsting the sticks down 

Fig. 38. 

through the body of the pillar, leaving the projecting ends, as before, 
to pierce the pediment as well as the base. 

Most ancient churches have examples of stone coffins, and pupils 
who have seen these should be encouraged to include them in their 
lists for modelling ; but a question at once arises as to procedure. 
Obviously, they were carved out of the solid block. How, then, 
should the children set to work ? The coffin may be built up, 
according to the correct technique of clay modelling, or beginning 
with a mass of clay, representing the original rude block of stone, 
it may be carved out as the builders did. Though I should be the 
last to suggest incorrect technique, yet it may, in such a case as 
this, be advisable to allow the children to follow the natural course 
and give free play to their fancy, afterwards, of course, recalling 



to notice the inadvisability of resorting to such a method under 
normal circumstances. The lid could subsequently be fitted and 
the simple decoration of cross or other ornament could be inscribed 
in the usual way. 

Somewhat similar in form, though much more highly decorated 
and more carefully elaborated, both within and without, is the 
Egyptian mummy case. This latter suggests other simple subjects 
quite appropriate to this stage, viz.. The Pyramids, Sphinx, and 
Cleopatra's Needle, or other obelisk. This latter has been a common 

Fig. 39. 

form of memorial, both in the case of the public monuments of 
squares and thoroughfares, and in the ordinary burying ground of 
our dead. These again suggest the simple market crosses, which 
should certainly be prescribed for modelling if examples are to be 
found locally, but not otherwise. But another example of a kin- 
dred sort is the lighthouse, and we may also enlarge our geographical 
information if the characteristic form found in Ireland, the Round 
Tower (Fig. 39) with its frequently attendant small church, or the 
Moslem minaret (Fig. 40) from which the muzzein summons the faith- 
ful to prayer, be included. If Asia is being studied, either from a 
geographical or historical aspect, the gateway so common in India, 
China and Japan might also be reproduced with advantage, and in 
considering New Zealand, the weird Totem pillars of the Maoris 
ought not to be overlooked (Fig. 40). 

7— (1017) 




Reference should be made to the instructions given under this 
heading in former chapters. 

The exercises prescribed should arise directly out of the course 
of geography under review, and wherever possible should provide 
for the modelling of a physical feature of restricted area, but of 
special interest, rather than that involving a whole countr^^ or worse 
still, a continent. River basins, with their watersheds and outlets, 
important mountain chains, with their offshoots and the upper 
courses of rivers, harbours, inland seas and straits — these are 


Fig. 40. 

the subjects best attempted, as offering most satisfactory results. 
In no case is it advisable to prescribe more than can well be accom- 
plished within the limits of a single lesson, nor can boys work 
together in groups upon a single model, unless the boards are excep- 
tionally large and allow freedom of movement and ready access 
for each worker. 

The Observational Exercises should tend to sharpen the children's 
wits so that as they walk about, at home or in the street, they keep 
watch in a more purposeful way. Not that they should be 
sent definitely shop window gazing. There are things about us 
which we constantly handle and use, or meet with in a less direct 
manner, and of which we ought to have more precise knowledge, 
gained unconsciously it may be, but part and parcel of everyone's 
stock of information acquired in the " daily round and common task." 



Unfortunately for us all, our knowledge of these common things 
is by no means always as full or as reliable as we fondly believe 
it to be. 

To put your pupils to the test, set, during the last quarter 
of an hour of the modelling lesson, a problem such as this — Model 
any two or three things you have seen in a chemist's shop window. 
Very probably, some children will waste a lot of time trying to recall 
what might be seen in the window at such and such a shop ; or 
others, having set to, and modelled their choices, find that after all 
the proportions and general features are not so convincing, that 


one instinctively recognizes them for what they are meant to 

In any case, the obvious corollary must be to insist upon every 
pupil having more frequent recourse to pencil and note-book, and 
so taking pains to acquire accurate impressions of these everyday 
things. The habit, thus gained, of looking more carefully about 
us, is of the highest possible value ; besides, we all recognize the 
prime importance of expression as an aid to clear thought. The 
facts we read and the impressions we receive through sight are 
never properly our own until we have reproduced them, and one 
of the best means of reproduction — and perhaps the most searching 
in its investigation, too, for words are apt to deceive both ourselves 
and our audience — is that by which we express ideas with the aid 
of the muscular sense and in concrete form. Test for yourself 
any fact with which you fancy yourself intimately acquainted- 


A correct verbal recital will go a long way ; but make the concrete 
representation in any media, and you will no longer be in doubt 
as to the value of your knowledge. 

Too often in our schools the pupils see, hear and read, but since 
expression rarely follows, their knowledge is very superficial and 
superficiality continues to be our one condemnation. The employer 
who wants his money's worth in the output of the nation's schools 
is clamant, and perhaps not without reason, because our children 
do not know what they think they know. 


This subject is dealt with in the next chapter, and the reader 
is asked to turn to p. 95 for information as to method of procedure. 



The Slab Mechanically Constructed. After a full year's experience 
of various methods of slab construction, and of the use and purpose 
of this device in clay modelling, we may now pass on to consider 
a quicker method of preparing this foundation. So long as the 
exercise demands the fullest attention — hands, eyes, mind, all 
keenly alert and concentrated on the task before them — so long 
will the work be of advantage educationally ; but we know how well- 
nigh impossible it is for any one to do the oft-repeated task with 
every faculty as firmly riveted on the exercise as they were bound 
to be on the occasion of the first attempt. Nature is careful to 
provide against such an unnecessary expenditure of energy. So 
soon as our muscles learn to move in harmony and are co-ordinated 
to accomplish some specific movement — a sort of memory takes 
up its abode there which we term reflex action. Thus we are 
spared the trouble of the repetition of all the original concentration 
of mind which characterizes every initial movement. In this way 
we learn to walk without thinking about it, and so we perform the 
thousand and one processes vitally connected with our everyday 

The work of constructing a slab in any two or three particular 
ways is bound to degenerate, sooner or later, into an action per- 
formed upon a lower rather than a higher mental plane, i.e., the 
action tends to be mechanically performed, and since this is so it 
will be just as well if we look out for some device that will accom- 
plish the purpose in the easiest possible way. Two methods are 
suggested, both of which will require assistance from the manual 
training room. The first will be found most satisfactory at this 
stage, when the work continues to be somewhat restricted in size, 
while the second, with its scope for reduction or enlargement is 
much better adapted for the final stages, when much more ambitious 
work is attempted. 

(1) The Framed Modelling Board. As Fig. 41a shows, this is 
constructed from a piece of fin. canary wood, 7 in. X 6 in. 
or thereabouts, surmounted by a frame of four fitted strips f in. 
wide, and i in. deep, this providing a clay slab about 4| in. X 5| in. 
X iin. " 

To make the slab, slightly damp the surface of the board with a 
sponge. Then tightly pack with small pieces of clay, building 
well into the comers and allowing the clay to appear clearly above 
the frame, the surface being subsequently smoothed over by a 




Senior Grade {b). Ages 12-14. 

First Term. 

Second Term. 

Third Term. 


The Slab constructed 

The Slab constructed 

The Slab constructed 




L — Building Forms 

(a) Common Object in 

Buckles, Straps (folded) 

Slipper, Child's Derby 

based on 

Full ReUef, e.g., 

with Buckles, Neck 

Tie, Upper of Old 

Rubber Heel Pad, 

Ties, Boy's Cap, Knot- 

Boot, Tobacco Pouch, 

(a) Common Objects. 

Purse, Horse Shoe, 

ted Handkerchief. 

Pipes, Old Sleeve or 

(6) Natural Objects. 

Toy Boat, Finger 

Shirt Wristband 

Plate (simple de- 

(folded over). 

coration), Escut- 

cheon, Tops, Pocket 


(6) Nature Studies in 

Mistletoe, Holly, Twigs 

Laurel Leaf, Opening 

Full Relief, e.g., 

and Dormant Buds, 

Buds, e.g.. Rose, 

Autumnal Fruits. 

Bulbs (sprouting). 

Fuchsia, Convolvulus. 

Ovster Shells. 

Cockle Shell or Lim- 

Snail Shell or Mussel. 



n. — Re visional 

(a) Tools, e.g., Ham- 

Necks of Bottles, Corks 

Domestic Tools, e.g.. 


mer Head, Axe, 

and Stoppers. 

Poker, Coal Hammer, 

Spanner, MaUet. 

Keys, Knives, etc. 

{b Seed Vessels (dry). 

Winter Stores, e.g., 

Buds and Opening 

e.g.. Bean Pod, 

Roots and Fruits. 

Flowers (Simplest 

Pea Pod. 


m.— Creative Forms, 

Cups and Saucers, very 

Shaving Mug, Basins 

Domestic China (co- 

Simple Pottery. 

simple Vase forms. 

and Bowls, Small Jug, 

operatively), South 

Eastern Lamp. 

African Gourd and 
Indian Water Bottle 
in the solid. 

rv. — studies in Low 

Nine Pin, Skittle, Indian 

Tools, e.g., Spanner, 

Vc".ses, Cups, Bottles. 



Oil Can, Mallet, Axe. 


1. .Architecture — The 

The Evolution of the 

The Evolution of the 


Evolution of the 

Arch (continued). 

Arch as applied to 


Windows. " 

(a) Historical. 

Greek and Roman 

Norman, Moorish, 

Norman, Gothic, e.g., 

Curved Arch, e.g.. 


Norman Early Eng- 

Cloaca Maxima, 

lish, Decorated, Per- 

Aqueducts, Arch of 


Titus, Dome, e.g., 


2. Evolution of Foot 

Evolution of Head 

Evolution of Shields and 



their Devices. 

Civil — Sandals, 

Civil — Hats of var- 

Boots and Shoes. 

ious periods from 
Phrygian Cap 

Military — Jack 

Military — Helmets. 


(6) Geographical. 

Maps of Morocco and 

Map of Tasmania and 

Map of Suez Canal, 

Straits of Gibraltar, 

Mainland, Hong Kong 

Panama Canal. 

The Red Sea, Zam- 

and Canton River, 

besi Gorge. 

Niagara Gorge. 

(c) Observational. 

Parts of a Horse's 

A Plasterer's Tools. 

A Territorial's Equip- 




(a) Drawing, both in Pencil and Brush, will follow modelling from Objects. 

(6) Memory modelling will follow modelling from objects as often as practicable. 

(c) In co-opcr.itive group modcUing, the children will be encouraged to use the media best 

adapted for the purpose, even if it be another material than clay. 
{d) It is most desirable that boys should have a note-book, in which to record sketches of 

things required for future modelling, e.g. shields of different periods. 



ruler or other wooden straight edge. If an ordinary flat ruler 
be employed, it should be used edge upwards, for if it be laid flat 
it will tend to bend under the strain and cut out a concave 
surface. The ruler, grasped at both ends, should run along the 
frame as a guide, scraping off all superfluous clay until a perfectly 
even surface is made. At the end of the lesson, if the work is not 
to be preserved, the clay may easily be dug out, using the blunt 
end of the ruler, but if the model is to be kept let it be set on one 
side, and after a few days the clay will have contracted in drying 
to such an extent, that the model and slab will easily fall out of 
the frame when inverted. 

Fig. 41. 

(2) Movable Strips. The foregoing method has the one obvious 
disadvantage that it ties the work down to one particular size of 
slab, and hence the course must be prescribed accordingly. With 
movable strips a slab of any reasonable size — large or small — 
may be made, thus offering considerable scope in more advanced 

Two strips, or four may be used. Those of rectangular section 




are superior to square pieces, inasmuch as they afford a better 
contact with the modelling board. The sketches (Fig. 41 & and 41c) 
illustrate the method ; it will be observed that a packing of clay- 
on the outside is a step necessary to keep the frame fixed in the 
desired position. For ordinary usage, strips of the following 
dimensions will be found useful — 9 in. x 1^ in. x | in., though 
it is sometimes handy to have much shorter transverse strips. 

To use with these strips, the pupils will require a modelling 
board. A 3-ply board, 10 in. X 8 in., costs but a penny, and is 
admirable for the purpose, but each boy who attends the manual 
instruction room should be urged to provide himself not only with 
strips but with a good modelling board. This need not have the 
pieces grooved and tongued, nor is it advisable to glue them together. 
They should be backed by two stout transverse pieces and screwed 
together. The advantage offered by this is that should the upper 
pieces shrink, the screws may easily be taken out and the whole 
board again made true with very little trouble. 


{a) Common Objects. The objects now prescribed for modelling 
are such as should be easily available for every child in the class, 
and yet it would not be policy to restrict him absolutely to what 
has been set down in the syllabus. These lists ought to be regarded 
as merely suggestive, and if a child is able to bring something 
similar in character and equally suitable for the work in hand, and 
that something is what he believes is well within his capabilities, 
his contribution should most certainly be accepted. For example, 
purses and pouches are to be found in such infinite variety, and are 
such common everyday accessories, that there should not be the 
slightest difficulty here. But in the case of an escutcheon, which 
was intended to refer to what possibly could be found on the class- 
room door, some pupils, preferring no doubt to have their models 
more easily accessible for reference and more directly near their 
work, might like to offer instead a letter weight, or ordinary balance 
weights, such as butchers use in their scale pans, or even a picture- 
rail suspender, door knob, or brass decoration off a bedstead. Any 
such suggestions as these should not only be allowed, but gladly 
welcomed, and the pupil be commended for his useful contribution. 
Usually there is ample scope for choice, and it is most desirable 
that the pupils should share the responsibility in the provision of 
suitable objects for modelling. 

Buckles and straps have been found to be prime favourites. 
The form is well known and simple, and with these the child 
feels he is really making progress as he sees his work assuming 
the desired form. There is no elusive surface to be felt in order 
to be appreciated, nor any of the other intricate features so 
characteristic of nature specimens. 


When modelling a subject like a belt, it is not necessary to 
reproduce the whole length of the strap ; it will suffice if the 
part that comprehends the buckle and loops, or better still, the 
buckle with the end of the strap inserted up to the first notch, is 

As for neckties and other stuff objects, these may easily be made 
much too difficult for young modellers. A simpler aspect of the 
same subject well attempted is far more profitable educationally 
than an advanced, complicated form, indifferently modelled. 
Any bit of cotton or woollen fabric, loosely folded once or twice, 
is a very good introduction at this stage, and more satisfactory 
work is likely to ensue from a study of such subjects gradually 
made more involved, and so more difficult, than from attempting 
to model an old boot simply because it is prescribed for the third 
term's work. Such a subject is admirable for an exceptionally 
clever pupil, but may easily prove both too large and too difficult 
for the average boys at this stage. 

(b) Natural Objects. As for the Nature studies, considerable 
latitude of choice will again have to be allowed ; varying degrees 
of success in the modelling must be expected. The simplest 
natural form presents difficulties of surface rarely met with in the 
most intricate fashioned object, and it is precisely these factors 
that render the modelling of Nature both so elusive and at the 
same time so attractive. 

There is absolutely no reason why objects prescribed for the 
previous grades should not again be attempted here, especially 
if the pupils feel that they can make a braver show with a simpler 
form, or that these are more readily accessible. One of the ines- 
timable advantages of this study is that it provides educational 
facilities for every grade of pupil, and that the modelling of the same 
natural form is excellent practice for all. Such a thing as an apple, 
for example, is a very suitable subject for study in the junior school, 
but there is plenty of scope for the powers of the most skilful of 
pupils, however excellent they may be, in reproducing even this 
simple form. 

On the other hand, working on the lines prescribed will quickly 
convince the teacher that these studies are not easily completed 
in an ordinary lesson — at least, finished in all their detail as they 
ought to be. Two courses of action lie before him, either to make 
facilities for the storage of unfinished work, or to accept incomplete 
models. The former does not work out well in practice, because 
the number of pupils in the class makes storage a big problem. 
Also, since a full week must elapse before the lesson can be con- 
tinued, securing a second specimen may be difficult. Besides, 
it is a doubtful advantage to press a pupil of this age to attain 
such approximation to accuracy ; perhaps children who are tem- 
peramentally artistic will gladly avail themselves of the opportunity, 


but it is a safer guide to consult the pupil's wishes than to force a 
general principle upon each and all alike. 

As for the alternative — to accept something less than a perfectly 
finished model — there seems to me to be ample scope for all a normal 
child's powers of manipulation and observation in the short hour 
at his disposal, if he secures correctly the general features of some 
subjects and merely suggests the particular characteristic of others. 
For example, the modelling of a laurel leaf should result in its 
being recognized for a laurel leaf and no other, even though 
no venation is attempted. The lie of the subject, its proportions 
and broad general features — all give ample opportunity for an hour's 
hard work, and if the teacher gets these in the time, he is well repaid 
and should be satisfied, and the pupils are making excellent progress 



being well on the highway to attempt the finer touches at a later 

Shells. The work will continue on the same lines as advocated 
in the previous stage, where the mussel shell was presented. Both 
outer and inner views could be shown on the same slab, where 
convenient. Such practice is advantageous, and ought not to be 
beyond the abihty of the pupils now, even though not more than 
one of them can be finished in all detail. 

An irregular example like an oyster shell is sometimes an oppor- 
tunity for careless work. The pupil should be led to see that a 
regularity of form underlies this apparently chaotic exterior, and 
to adjust his work accordingly. But the very regularity of the 
cockle shell is also a snare, so that before including the markings 
the pupil again must be called upon to make a thorough 
investigation both of their character and of their origin and direction. 

The snail — on a leaf, of course, as long as it can be kept there — 
is a most entertaining study, and should result in pupils having 
a greater admiration for so wonderful a creature. This lesson 
seldom produces as good modelling at the still life subjects, for the 


children's attention is diverted to the movements of the animal ; 
but that is not to be deplored entirely. 

Buds. At first the closed buds should be chosen ; these are of 
relatively simple form, may be modelled easily in the round, and 
then fixed in position upon the slab. It is a good plan to follow 
the same example of bud for two or three weeks, each subsequent 
lesson showing it more and more approaching the full, opening 

Sprays. Only the holly and mistletoe are prescribed under this 
heading, and that purely for seasonable reasons. The mistletoe 
will not present much difficulty, the stem and leaf being so very 
simple in form, though care will have to be exercised to secure a 
sincere reproduction of the planes. The holly is not so simple a 
study ; but as a real test of judgment of surfaces it is exceedingly 
valuable at this stage. A good plan is to suggest a study of a single 
leaf of holly, the model to be reproduced on an enlarged scale, say, 
four or even six times the size. The fragile points may be neglected 
and the whole attention concentrated on the outline and curves 
of the surface. 

(c) Creative Forms. Simple Pottery. Whenever opportunities pre- 
sent themselves in the modelling lesson, inspiring fresh energy and 
thereby added interest in this or other subjects of the curriculum, 
they ought not to be allowed to pass by unheeded. This is not 
meant to raise a discussion upon the vexed question of correlation, 
but merely to point out how obviously an elementary study of 
pottery and pottery-making lends that added interest to the history 
and geography lessons from an evolutionary, as well as from a 
political aspect, besides affording abundant opportunity for the 
study of the refinement of form and the subtleties of line and curve, 
so characteristic a feature of the ceramic art, whether modern or 

Judging from the evidence of modern research, the making of 
pottery seems to have been one of the modes of expression common 
to nearly all prehistoric peoples, and so a little time spent on a 
consideration of the probable methods of procedure of these 
primitive races should be all to the good, both for this lesson or 
for the others. 

Mining, as we understand it, was not to be expected then, but, 
in its place, the simple method of digging out the clay from the 
hillside or from an exposed cliff, with the aid of a stick or piece of 
bone or other blunt instrument, was resorted to. Out of the bulk 
so collected, the more finely grained would doubtless be separated 
from the coarser, and used subsequently for the construction of the 
smaller, whilst the coarser could be utilized for the larger and bulkier, 
earthen pots and water jars. Then the clay would be conveyed 
to the nearest rvmning water, to be washed and kneaded, being 
separated during the process from all foreign undesirable substances, 


such as pebbles and vegetable matter. As often as not, this raw 
clay, as so gathered and prepared, would be found to be " too short," 
i.e., would break in pieces in working and not be sufficiently adhesive 
as well as plastic. To remedy this defect a binding substance must 
be added, such as very fine sand or perhaps even shells ground down 
to a powder between stones. This, mixed with the clay and then 
thoroughly " wedged " or worked up, would improve the toughness 
and so increase the usefulness of the clay as a modelling medium. 

The potter's wheel, though a very ancient institution, could 
not have been available for the earliest workers in clay ; but an 
inspection of some of the oldest remnants of pottery gives ample 


evidence that the primitive peoples had already learned the art of 
basket weaving ere the utility of clay was known, for it seems as 
if such basket work was used as a foundation, upon the inside of 
which the clay was plastered, the imprint of the reeds being still 
visible upon the outside of these ancient relics. Baskets would be 
useful as receptacles for fish and other meats, but of no use whatever 
as water containers, and yet immediately the inside had been 
lined with clay this defect was remedied, and a new era commenced 
with its introduction as an article of the utmost importance in 
cooking food and for other domestic purposes. 

The first native who built his fire round such a vessel discovered 
many advantages. The basketry was ruined, but the lining of clay 
had been hardened and given an undreamt-of permanence and 
Utility, for the contained water or food, as the case may be, had 




been heated or cooked. Thus food was rendered more palatable 
and digestible. Moreover, the vessel presented not only a pleasing 
and fairly regular outline, but was now decorated with a maze of 
markings, zigzags and hatchings, continuous and orderly, that 
could scarcely fail to be suggestive. In all probability, the simple 
decoration found on the pottery of present day savages is indicative 
that such peoples have never progressed beyond the first step 
suggested by such ornament. 

To some reflective mind the thought would naturally come, 
sooner or later, that this was but a roundabout way of producing 
a water-holding cooking utensil. Working round and round and 
so upward upon the inside of the basket might then suggest the 
more direct method of rolling the clay in strips — like the reeds 

Fig. 42. 

used in weaving — and of coiling these also round and round and so 
upward, following somewhat the process of weaving, where successive 
layers of reeds produced the coiled basketry. The work, in the 
case of weaving with reeds, was done upon a foundation of upright 
twigs, but in the case of the clay vessel upon the basket itself 
for a support, and later on, when this had been discarded, the 
natural tenacity and adhesion of the clay was relied upon, and no 
foundation used. 

And so we have suggested to us for our present-day consideration 
two methods of making simple pottery forms, viz., the one above 
referred to, of building up the body of the vessel by a succession of 
coils — very much after the manner of the modern potter, as he 
impresses out of the bulk at his disposal on the wheel a continuous 
stream of clay, and gradually brings fingers and thumb closer 
together, thinning out the material as the sides of the vessel grow 
higher and higher (Figs. 42 and 43) ; and the second method, also 
suggested by the potter as he forces his thumb into a bolus of clay, 
the hole thus formed being continually widened as the sides of the 

W P A 



vessel are thinned and raised till the desired form is produced 
(Fig. 44). 

In the latter method the bulk of clay required for the particular 
operation must be estimated before the task is begun, and no more 
should be added, but working by the coiled method will demand 
a continual addition of material until the vessel has been completed. 
If a vase of any very great height is required, since the weight of 
the superimposed mass will soon press the part beneath out of shape, 
it is advisable, before many coils have been added, that time should 
be given for the lower part to dry somewhat before attempting to 
complete the vase. Objects produced by either of these interesting 

Fig. 43. 

methods must be given time to set quite hard before being handled, 
but when in that condition they may safely be scraped and polished 
with fine glass paper until a very high degree of finish has been 
produced. If handles are necessary they should be added while the 
clay is still soft ; a mortar of fine clay is all that is necessary to 
secure good adhesion, but a warning must be given against expecting 
a serviceable handle without the processes of kiln-firing and glazing, 
and these are quite outside the scope of these lessons. However, 
a thorough drying in a hot oven will give to such vessels as are being 



undertaken quite sufficient permanence to enable them to be kept 
for reference and emulation, though not for direct use. 

Studies in Low Relief. As in each of the stages prior to the 
introduction of working upon a slab, all modelling was understood 
to be executed " in the round," so now we must regard modelling 
upon a slab as some sort of work " in relief." It is obvious that 
of the two methods the former is the more open to criticism, because 
the result ought to appear satisfactory from whatever point of view 
it may be regarded, whereas the latter, being attached to a back- 
ground, and however deeply undercut, shows no details beyond 
what are to be observed from the front — the one fixed point of view. 

Fig. 44. 

Naturally, then, work " in the round " should be expected to 
make the greatest demands upon one's skill and care in execution 
of the modelling ; here the lines and surfaces, being studied from 
all sides instead of merely from one aspect, ought to convey equally 
pleasing sensations to the critic, and that is expecting a great deal 
and making the task one of exceptional difficulty. The question 
might then be very pertinently raised as to why modelling " in 
relief " should be reserved exclusively for the later stages of our 
course, and if so, some such general reasons as these may be offered 
in defence. 

The simple forms suggested for study among the juniors are 
always such as can be freely handled, and thus their surfaces under- 
stood. The characteristic solidity of a pear or a lemon can be better 


appreciated by a rough grasping of it with the hand, but the 
delicacy of leaf surfaces cannot be in that way. A child's natural 
plan of dealing with objects is to grasp rather than to feel, and as 
far as order of development is concerned, that of the muscular 
contractions of the hand precedes that of his more delicate tactual 

In modelling " in relief " there is no definite law as to what the 
relief may be — whether high or low. It is largely a matter of taste 
and judgment. The great art is to select the salient features of an 
object and so to produce a truthful effect with a minimum of effort. 

By high relief is usually meant the reproduction of objects as 
fully as possible — at their correct elevation as they lie upon the 
table before the class. This should present no difficulty, because 
it merely means the representation of models as heretofore, except 
that they are fixed upon a slab and are only to be viewed from 
the front or sides. 

Where a suppression of elevation is understood, that we shall 
regard as " low relief," even though it may not be strictly so 
according to the canons of art. " Middle relief " and extremely 
" low relief," in the usual acceptation of these terms is much too 
advanced a study for the average boy, and so we shall merely 
confine our attention at this stage to a suppression of elevation, 
calling it " low, " in contradistinction to the " high " relief or 
" in the round." 

It may be laid down as a good working rule — for the present 
stage, that is — that no relief should exceed f in. even at its part 
of greatest thickness. More often than not, one half of this eleva- 
tion will be as much as is necessary, and yet it must always be clearly 
understood that this depth does not represent one-half of the 
greatest diameter or thickness of the object, supposing it were cut 
in two. If an exact half of the object were to be modelled, the 
resulting work would merely give a representation of exactly what 
it is — a half section. On the other hand, even if the relief were 
ever so slight, the aim should be to give an effect of roundness 
suggestive of the shape and general characteristics of the object 
portrayed. Such great masters as DonateUo have obtained the 
round effect in extremely low relief, but children so often miss this 
point, and perhaps it is not greatly to be wondered at. Their work, 
in this direction, usually tends to flatness, as if they were merely 
modelling a flat drawing, only somewhat raised above the level of 
the slab. 

Models of a regular form, such as have been turned in a lathe, 
are good examples with which to make a first essay ; bold curves 
and good outline, having prominent rather than subtle gradations 
of surface, are the most desirable. A nine-pin, or a skittle, or Indian 
club may be cited as a suitable specimen. 

Making a plan of the outline, drawn as if it were traced (though 


it must never be actually done in this way) round the object lying 
upon the slab, must be the first step. Next, the region of greatest 
elevation must be determined, and the amount of relief by which 
this is to be indicated must be decided upon. Then build a barrier 
of clay across the slab, corresponding in position and elevation. 
As this now stands out in bold contrast to the flat surface of the 
slab, and a clear silhouette is thrown by this edge, advantage should 
be taken of these circumstances to secure both the proper degree of 
curve and a definite but not too obtrusive impingement upon the 
slab as shall give the correct curvature when subsequent additions 
are made. Proceed similarly to build one or two more such 
barriers in places of lesser, but quite as important and distinct, 
parts of the model, and then gradually fill in the intervening spaces, 
working first of all downwards from one barrier to the next, and 
then across the model from side to side until the representation 
is complete. 


In continuation of the scheme initiated in the preceding stage, 
where a certain amount of historical research on some simple topic 
is demanded, three elementary studies are here prescribed, viz., 
(1) Foot gear, (2) Head gear, (3) Helmets. The consideration of 
these subjects involves an inquiry into the evolution of general 
protective devices. 

Armour of any kind was, in the first instance, largely a matter 
for the surer protection of the vital parts. Then, as the worth of 
this was appreciated, and the skill of the armourer grew, the desire 
for more and more complete proof was awakened. Those vital 
parts having received due consideration, the less vulnerable were 
clothed, probably more by the desire of the smith than the need 
of the warrior. 

One has only to look at the greaves of the Greeks, for instance. 
Having regard to the arms and the mode of warfare waged in those 
times — for, at any rate, the Greeks were not contending with 
barbarians who drove scythe-armed chariots among their enemies — 
there seems to be no valid reason for this addition to the personal 
equipment, unless it be for adornment. Gradually such super- 
fluities were discarded, and their revival only appears again in the 
Middle Ages, or thereabouts when it became the fashion to ride 
into the tournament or on to the field of actual combat armoured 
from head to foot. There is no doubt that such complete armour 
showed most admirable skill on the part of the workman, and must 
have presented a very picturesque appearance as the knight, duly 
caparisoned, issued forth in all the panoply of war. 

Examples of the armour of various periods, available for public 
inspection, invariably excite keen interest in young and old, especially 
among the boys, and I am sure that permission given to sketch 

8— (1017) 


or reproduce in clay any of these objects would hardly ever fail to 
arouse a most ready response. Even in towns where such collec- 
tions are not at hand, there will probably be found old churches 
possessing monuments of recumbent figures in armour, or at least 
helmets surmounting mural memorials and tablets, and wherever 
such information is to be had, every opportunity for visiting these 
should be seized, and such details as are germane to this inquiry 
noted down. 

Foot Gear. Foot gear makes a most interesting study if only the 
sources of the supply of information can be placed at the disposal 
of the children. Books of reference with plenty of pictorial illus- 
tration are essential, and to secure these — or a list of these books— 
the children should be sent to invoke the co-operation of the willing 
officials of the public library. 

So long as our forefathers lived in a country where the merest 
tracks across fields or through forests showed the direction men 
took when they went abroad, protection for the feet, beyond 
Nature's callosities, was superfluous, but immediately the Roman 
power engineered its military roads the hard surface made some 
other provision imperative. Hence we find sandals .from the 
rudest type up to the highly decorative form favoured by the noble 
patrician or general The next development sees the introduction, 
after the Norman Conquest, of a more or less complete covering 
for the foot and ankle, and these continued the vogue in quite a 
rudimentary form until the dandy and the courtier of the fifteenth 
century evolved those monstrosities in which the toes were length- 
ened to such an alarming extent as to necessitate the employment 
of golden chains to link them up to the knee or even the waist of 
the wearer, lest calamity, by reason of their waywardness, should 
befall my gentleman. So much extravagance was lavished upon 
this kind of display, that, at last, the law intervened to limit the 
length to which the toes of boots might be extended (Fig. 45). Not 
to be thwarted, the men of fashion took to wearing boots made of 
such breadth at the toes that again the law interposed to restrict 
expansion in that direction. The effect of this fashion for broad 
toes may be seen in the peculiar slashed shoe favoured by the early 
Tudors (Fig. 46), but among the later Tudors, as men began to 
travel abroad more, we find the modern-looking boot of the 
Elizabethan gentleman, and beyond that we have advanced but 
little, except in detail. 

But, about this time, as the military learned to leave their lower 
extremities unarmoured, we see the introduction of a sort of jack- 
boot type, which had, at first, voluminous folds as in the early 
Stuarts, and sometimes, as after the Restoration, was often decor- 
ated with a fringe of lace (Fig. 46). The jack-boot proper came in 
with William III., the subsequent Marlborough variation being a 
very heavy, cumbersome-looking thing, to be sobered down 



somewhat to the WeUington at the time of the Napoleonic wars. 
A modified form of this, called the top boot, continued to be worn 
by all and sundry until quite recent times, and even now it still 

Fig. 45. 

persists among huntsmen, jockeys and coachmen, while the 
traditional picture of John Bull of our own day always shows him 
wearing such top boots (Fig. 47). 

This review is appended here to give some idea of the kind of 



inquiry the pupils should be encouraged, and even assisted, to make. 
I would not prescribe all the various forms and specimens for 
modelling ; that would take up too much of the available time, 

Fig. 46. 

but every boy's note-book should include as many of these examples 
as possible. He should then be aided to marshal his store into 
some orderly arrangement, to indicate the sequence of development 
or the evolution of foot gear. 

The modcUing of these examples may be accomplished either 



in the round or in relief. If the latter, the experience already 
gained in relief work in the previous part of this course will now 
stand the pupil in good stead ; but in all probability many will 
prefer to carry out the modelling in the round, as calculated to 
produce a more realistic copy. 

A prime difficulty presents itself at once, viz., having a certain 
amount of clay at one's disposal and a definite time in which to 
finish the task, to determine upon such a size as shall neither exhaust 
the material nor prove too big for completion. This is a matter 
which must be determined first and foremost, and so the plan of 
the modelling will be sketched upon the slab, or the modelling 
board, as the case may be, to limit the dimensions to what is reason- 
able — that is, of course, neither too smaD, to make the work 
trivial, nor too large, to make it impossible. Then the shoe 

must be built up solidly, aiming to secure due proportion in the 
main, essential features. That done — and it should be accomplished 
as rapidly as possible, consistent with accurate and careful work — 
the rest of the time may be devoted to details such as means of 
fastening, any peculiar embroidery or other adornment, or even 
creases made by wear and tear. The top which encloses the ankle 
— if it be a boot of that type — can now be hollowed out a little 
by pressing the clay down tightly, and even the edges thinned 
somewhat to give it the appearance of a thin, pliable material, 
as leather ought to be. On no account must the object be built 
up as if it were a hollow form throughout. It is not in such details 
as these that the modelling of a boot is an admirable exercise, but 
in a faithful reproduction of externals, the general mass and propor- 
tion, and some such obvious characteristics as would arrest attention 
and secure conviction if the shoe as a whole were being viewed. 

Head Gear. Having sketched in brief the method of inquiry 
suggested in the investigation of foot gear, there is no need for 
further elaboration in the remaining two divisions of the course. 



The line drawings of the various helmets, shown in Figs. 48-53, will 
perhaps assist the busy teacher when he finds it necessary to supply 
deficiencies in the scholar's books. 

Fig. 48. 

Fig. 49. 

When the helmets are about to be modelled, the same choice as 
to method will again arise before the pupil, for they may be executed 
in the round or in relief. If the former is chosen I should suggest 
again that the mass should first be built in as correctly as possible, 



and that subsequently such accessories as horns, horsetail, or plume, 
ear or nose protectors should be added. Care must always be 
exercised not to build so carelessly as to necessitate subsequent 
excavation, as that would be wrong technique. 

Shields. The method of treatment of this section will continue 

Fig. 50. 

as in the previous sections of the course. They are most easily 
and effectively modelled in the round, resting upon the slab or 
modelling board. Such shields as were shaped to the curve of the 
body will not lie absolutely flat on the board, and the modelling 



of these may correctly be described as "in the round," but shields 
of one plane will, of course, lie fiat, and such modelling would then 
fall under the category of relief, though there be no suppression 
of any part in the course of the reproduction. 

Fig. 51. 


Notes upon the introductory consideration of the evolution of 
the arch appear in the previous chapter, and reference should now 
be made to those paragraphs, both on the question of matter for 
study and methods of execution. 



In this stage it is proposed that the study should be continued 
and the evolution considered in its later aspects, passing on through 
the Norman to the Saracenic, only the very simple forms of these 
being studied. The natural corollary takes one yet a step further 


Fig. 52. 

to the evolution of the window, first in its rough Norman form and 
on in the next course to consider the fundamental truths underlying 
the beautiful aspects of Gothic tracery. It is not intended that 
this study should make any serious inroad upon the time devoted 

Fig. 53. 



to modelling, but rather that if occasion demanded it, it might 
follow the need for illustration subsequent to the history lessons, 
as in the other grades. 

No course of our historical study should confine itself purely and 
solely to a reiteration of battles and treaties. There are certain 
basic factors of interest to all, and involving reference to the rise 
of democratic power, and such a study, in its turn, might go further 
to discover how social progress has been attained. Many of the 
ideas and hopes, struggles and aspirations of the people are indelibly 
inscribed in handicraft, and perhaps nowhere more conspicuously 
so than in architecture preserved for us, whether ecclesiastical or 
domestic. Historical reading books will doubtless furnish such 
illustrations and references to these, while explanatory remarks 
concerning them must take further cognizance of the very obvious 
progress made, say, from the massive Norman building to the 
inspiring, elegant Gothic architecture. Simple line drawings may 
suffice to trace the fundamental lines and curves, but if the pupil 
be allowed to roll his clay and work out the details, the simple 
truths of the obvious course of evolution will appeal to him all the 
more strongly, and be impressed indelibly upon his memory. 

Some of the examples are best done individually, but others are 
especially suitable for co-operative effort. If the time at the dis- 
posal of the teacher for such a study as this be ample, there is no 
reason why the blocks should not be made in conveniently large 
sections, and be allowed to harden. These can then be properly 
built up and fixed with a matrix or " slip." Such a representation 
would be most realistic to the children, and make a very strong 
appeal to their constructive interests. If, on the other hand, only 
a very short time for studying these things is available, the arches 
should be built on the board, in only a slight depth of clay. But, 
whatever the method adopted, the fundamental and very essential 
feature required of such modelling is an intelligent grasp of the 
truths of the evolution from the very simple to the more complex. 



The welcome fruition of the labour bestowed upon this occupation 
in the preceding classes should now begin to be manifest in the 
modelling accomplished in the work of this division. The justifica- 
tion or otherwise of the course of study hitherto prescribed ought 
now to be obvious, and whatever care has been given to methods of 
work should begin to be apparent in the facility of the children 
as they apply themselves to their studies. 

This latter point is of prime importance in our consideration at 
this juncture. It is not so much what the children attempt to do 
as the methods they employ. The pupils, being on the threshold of 
entrance into the wider world of industry, and fuU of eagerness to 
excel in the quest of a livelihood, and so to secure for themselves 
a firm footing in commercial life, may be expected to have their 
thoughts concentrated on the pursuit of these things. It must 
not be forgotten, however, that if the modelling during this, 
the ultimate stage of our course, is to be considered as 
justifying the time devoted to it, it must necessarily be 
judged by other standards than those the world usually takes 
cognizance of. There are other factors in life besides business 
acumen, though this may take pre-eminence in the thoughts of 
most men. Not only are mental alertness and agility essential 
to worldly success, but other faculties, such as manual dexterity, 
play their part, especially in the use of tools, of whatever kind, and 
designed to accomplish whatever purpose. And yet, in such a study 
as ours, tools are of secondary importance, the hands themselves 
coming into contact with the medium and doing all the work 
with but little external assistance. In work counting upon the 
employment of the finest co-ordination of touch and muscular 
judgment, this deftness should be found at its fullest and best. 

And since our medium, and the whole realm of such subjects as 
arc impressed for our study are calculated to make appeal to the 
highest and noblest thoughts in man, arousing the profoundest 
emotions by confronting one with all Nature's wealth of beauty 
of form and delicacy of texture and surface, wc are brought face 
to face with one of the sublimcst aspects of thought that man can 
entertain, viz., the artistic. 

Whether or no such artistic sentiments begin to stir within the 
minds of the pupils depends, to a very large extent, upon the teacher. 
Most of the essential factors are present — the media, the objects 
to inspire, and the pupil with his dormant possibilities. No words 




Senior Grade (c). Ages 14-16. 

First Term. 

Second Term. 

Third Term. 


Castors (various designs) Baby's Slipper. 

Lady's Hand Bag. 

I. — Common Objects. 

Spigot or other form of 

Old Shoe. 

Wrist Watch and Strap. 

{a) In the Round or 



Soft Felt Hat. 

Full Relief. 

Tobacco Pipe and Pouch. 

Boy's Cap. 

Scroll Head of Violin. 

(6) In Low Relief. 

Peg Top. 

Study of Drapery. 


Letter Box of own de- 

Doorknocker of own 

Finial of own design or 

sign, or from sketches 

design, or from 

from sketches of ex- 

of examples. 

sketches of examples. 


Tools, (in Full Relief). 


Hammer Head. 

Saw Handle. 

II.— Nature Study. 

(a) Child's hand — open 

Child's Nose, Mouth 

Child's Ear, Foot, Eye, 

(a) ) From actual 

;:nd closed. 

and Chin. 


(b) ]■ objects 

(6) Ivy Spray, Apple 

Mistletoe Spray, Nar- 

Oak Spray, Arum, Head 

(c) ) (in Full ReUef). 

Spray, Poppy Head.) cissus, Snowdrops. 

of Rhubarb. 

(c) Duck's Head and 

Cod's Head. 

Snail on Leaf. 

Foot. Whelk SheU. 

Crab. Triton Shell. 

Lobster. Scallop Shell. 

(d) From Pictures 

Fauna of South Africa 

Fauna of Australasia. 

Fauna of India. 

(in Low Relief). 

or Canada. 

m.— Pottery. 




(Pupil's own design). 


1. Ancient Pillars: their 

Norman decoration of 

Co-operative Building of 


decoration, e.g., 

Pillar and Arch. 

examples from Norman 

{a) Historical. 

Egyptian, Greek, 

Early English ditto. 



Gothic tracery as ap- 

plied to window 


2. Emblems and Badges, 

Ditto, e.g., Bear and 

Ditto, e.g., 

e.g., Rampant Lion, 

Ragged Staff, Ele- 

Tudor Rose. 

Star and Crescent, 

phant and Castle, 

Badge of James I. 

Dragon of Wales, 

Crowned Portcullis. 

„ United Kingdom. 

Prince of Wales' 


3. Evolution of Means 

Evolution of Alarms, 

Evolution of Means of 

of Lighting, e.g.. 

e.g.. Curfew Bell. 

Transmitting Messages 

Torch Holder. 

Town Crier's Hand 

e.g.. Fiery Cross. 


BeU, Trumpets. 

Indian Runner's Letter 

Lamps and Lan- 

Buoys, Lighthouses, 



Foghorns and Mega- 

Messenger's Wallet. 

Gas Brackets and 


Aide-de-Camp's ditto. 


Cycle and other Bells. 


Electric ditto. 

Street Fire Alarm. 


Steam and other 

Flag Signals. 


Telegraph, etc., 
Insulator, Receiver, 
Transmitter, etc. 

(6) Geographical. 

Map of South Africa, | Map of Australia. 

Map of India. 

Zambesi or Nile or 

,, New Zealand. 

Ceylon and Mainland. 

Congo Basins. 

,, Murray Basin. 

Ganges Basin. 


(c) Observation. 

Means of Attachment. 

Means of Attachment. 

Means of Attachment. 

I. Fixtures, e.g., 

2. Movable, e.g.. 

3 Handles, eg., 

Picture Hook and 

Hook and Staple. 

Spade and other 

Rail, Cornice Pole, 

Window Fastening. 

Tools, Dust Bin and 

Bracket, Joint of 

Door Chain. 

other Vessels, Car- 

water pipe, etc., 

Bolts and Hinges. 

riage Door, Clothes 

Wall Brackets. 


Basket, Portman- 

Shaft and Trace. 

teau and other Bags. 

N.B. {a) Drawing, both in pencil and brush, will follow all modelling from Objects. 

(b) Memory modelling will follow modelling from Objects as often as practicable, especially 

during the concluding portion of the lesson. 

(c) In Co-operative modelUng the children will be encouraged to use the media best adapted 

for the purpose, even if it be another material than clay. 

(d) It is most desirable that boys should have a note book in which to record sketches of 

things required for future modelling, e.g., evolution of badges. 



of tlie teacher, and scarcely any instniction from him, are necessary to 
bring these into action ; rather, it is the attitude upon which 
the awakening of the pupil's latent powers depends. Certainly 
no teacher should imdertake the super\-ision of the modelling lesson 
at this stage unless he feels himself capable of dealing %\-ith such a 
responsibility, and no one deficient of artistic sensibilit}- can be 
considered a fit director of a study of such scope. 


Though certain objects of this class are specified in the syllabus 
for modeUing, there is no reason why the work should be limited 


to these few only. Other objects maj^ be more ayailable, and offer 
just as good opportunities for skill and taste in production. The 
children themselves, at this advanced stage of the work, should 
have some voice in the selection, and it may happx^n that they have 
excellent facilities for contributing others equally valuable for the 
purpose. The main point to be considered is that such objects 
as are selected should possess good form, and should be rather more 
complex than those undertaken in the preceding stages, and yet 
not invol\-ing too many intricacies. There should be plenty of 
variation in outline, but not such an amount of detail as to necessi- 
tate an excessive resort to a tool. In fact, the greater part of all 
this work should be such as can easily be executed by the fingers 
alone. Such objects should also be " full-bodied " and bulky, 
rather than slight ; this will permit of reproduction in the round. 


These same models may later be undertaken, though not at the 
lesson immediately following, in as low relief as convenient. 


Exercises in low relief may in\'olve problems of considerable 
diihculty, and perhaps demand for successful reproduction a degree 
of skill scarcely to be expected from a class as a whole, seeing the 
pupils have had a limited experience ; and yet it is a form of 
modelling of such undoubted value that it ought not to be overlooked 
or neglected. 

The gi'eat necessity for care in the application of the modelling 
tool upon the slab must be impressed upon the pupils. In the 
effort to delineate a distinct outline to the low-relief model, where 
such impingement is ver^' slight and subtle, the tendency is to 
allow the tool to depress the slab, making concavities here and 
there, and so destroying the regularity of the background, a really 
vital factor in assisting the model to stand out conspicuoush^ 
however low the relief may be. 

Design. As a relaxation from coppng specified examples in 
detail, designing may be introduced at suitable intervals. The 
subjects proposed do not necessarily involve absolute originality of 
treatment, or a course of lessons on the principles of design ; but 
instead it is suggested that the attention of the class should, at an 
early date in the term, be directed to the wealth of such examples 
everywhere at hand. These they should study, making numerous 
sketches in their note-books, together witli some variations from 
each type. Again, there may be examples of a better class of 
workmanship on some of the more ancient houses m the neighbour- 
hood, or even pictures of historical examples maj' be available. 
These should now pro\-ide material for further stud\', so that when 
the time comes and this topic is prescribed for the lesson, the collected 
sketches in the note-books will be available for the pupil to refer 
to in making his choice. (See sketches on page 116.) 


This is really a variation of the object modelling already dealt 
with. The special tools and equipment familiar to a boy may be 
impressed into ser\'ice. In fact, the boy, knowing these tools so 
well, usually attacks such problems with greater zest ; he knows 
every detail, and so has greater confidence ui his ability to produce 
a satisfactory piece of work. Such objects, if wisely chosen, are 
very \-ahiable for memory training. The boy often enotigh finds 
out that, though he may know the parts thoroughly well, it is still 
a matter of no little difiiculty to reproduce all the varying curvatiuv 
antl the proportion of parts in such a manner as to make the model 
a speaking likeness. 

1 aderxfcd 

Pelkt Stoneleigk 

Iff lev; (Oi^fordbKire) 

Doable. Cone 3tot\eki3K 

■^ Lozervqe 
ELsse-adirvc CKu-tlaf\d) 

^\U^r\aXe. £)iUe.t StonekigK 

Lirvcolrv CaCKexiral 

5t ELtKtlred's Morv>/icK 

5tee.tltj (Derbv^aK.r-e) 


Ziq Zaq »viCK Bexids 




In this, as in all the preceding stages, the study of natural objects 
must be influenced by the season of the year and the availability 
of examples. But throughout the year there lies very handy a 
wealth of natural form of peculiar value from our point of view in 
the simple studies from life. This branch of our work is always 
attractive to children, and is specially useful for study when 
flowers, leaves and fruit forms of a suitable kind are not to be had. 


The little children from the junior class delight to be of service 
to the older ones. They come and pose most patiently, and at 
the same time take a most intelligent interest in all that is going on. 


Not only so, but the modellers themselves are put upon their mettle, 
for it would never do to fail before such keen and interested critics. 

It is altogether out of the question, and most undesirable for 
work of too ambitious a character to be prescribed, but there is 
absolutely no reason why a single detail of such a study should not 
be attempted. The modelling of the human form provides work, 
of course, for the most skilled craftsman, and he, and he alone, 
may be expected to excel in it ; but apprentices are not judged 
on the same standard as journeymen even, and a beginning has to 
be made sometime. 

We have found very fair results accrue from such studies as are 
prescribed, and without expecting the highest standard of attain- 
ment in each and every case, the work done seemed to us thoroughly 
to justify its inclusion. 

Botanical Examples. No elaboration of procedure need be given 

9— (1017) 



for modelling examples from Nature. The modelling of an ivy 
spray is but a more complex and complete study of the representation 
of a single leaf. The modelhng of the poppy head can be based 
upon the modelling of an apple in the round, and so on. 













1 ^ 





Birds, Fish and Shells. The heads and feet of pouUry are most 
interesting examples for study, and are not at all difficult for 
children at this stage. Plenty of such examples may be procured 
at the poulterer's shop for a few pence ; as they are necessarily of 
a perishable character, they should only be provided at a time 



when it is convenient to finish the work at one lesson. The indica- 
tion of the feathers is not a vital feature ; the correct reproduction 
of the general form is what must be aimed at, and this alone will 
provide ample scope for good modelling. 

The same remarks apply with equal force to studies of fish, 
though the crab and lobster are exceptionally difficult examples. 
Perhaps a good beginning might be made by the separate modelling 
of the body shell of the crab or lobster, the legs and other details 
being added, if thought fit, at a later stage. At any rate such an 
object as a crab, or a lobster, is too involved for complete 
reproduction in one lesson. 

Shells. These, perhaps, provide the most serious examples of 


study. They are certainly easily obtained and readily stored, 
and in their reproduction, call forth all the best energies of the 
pupils, and great concentration of thought. The one drawback 
to this study is that the children usually fall too readily and at too 
early a stage into a reliance upon tools, whereas no tool should be 
applied until the form has been completely roughed out, and the 
relative position of parts attained. The whelk and triton shells 
must be modelled in the hands, and when as much of the form as 
possible has been completed, they should be fixed upon the slab 
and finished off with a tool. The scallop, whether the inside or 
outside is being studied, must be built upon the slab, step by step, 
and piece by piece, right from the first. 

Modelling in Relief from Pictures. Essential, certainly, among 
the equipment a pupil should acquire at school, in order that 
he may enter sympathetically and usefully into the social life of 
the world, and so become a good citizen, is a knowledge of such 




processes as afford a ready means of communication with his 
fellows. The ability to read and write script is a fundamental 
factor in the transference of ideas, and scarcely less valuable is 
the power to delineate by hues and sketches. Perhaps half the 
battle to the successful representation of one's own ideas, whether 
by script or drawing, is the facility to interpret correctly those of 
other people. 

Modelling from pictures is a valuable means of revealmg to the 
teacher whether the boy has, or has not, a correct impression of 
what the artist wished to convey, and so an occasional lesson spent 
upon such a subject affords both variety to the course and a splendid 
opportunity for the teacher to observe the mental progress of the 

The Geography lessons of the senior grade are confined to the 
British Empire, and the animal pictures of their reading books 
should give examples of the fauna found there. The value of this 
study could be greatly enhanced if some regard to zoological 
classification were kept in view, in addition to the more elementary 
grouping according to environment. Where facilities exist and the 
capabilities of the pupils warrant it, a further advance might be 
attempted by modelling the characteristic lineaments upon which 
we base out ethnographical divisions of mankind. 

Pottery. The elementary principles underlying this study have 
already been somewhat elaborated in the preceding sections. The 
subjects for study now suggested are only meant to be a natural 
development of the work done in those courses, and hence a simple 
idea is prescribed as the central theme of each term, around which 
the examples might be concentrated. 

In no instance is it intended that tall, solid models be constructed, 
but merely such as may be evolved from the simple basin and low 
dish. If pictures of the pottery of our forefathers could be obtained 
they would provide a fitting stimulus, while if a museum be available, 
many other examples, both ancient and modern, but of similarly 
simple applications could be studied with advantage. 

Of course, it goes without saying that whatever the design may 
be, it should first of all have embodiment in some views drawn 
upon paper. This is the usual first step in whatever construction 
is attempted, and is valuable in that it requires careful preliminary 
thinking and obviates haphazard work. 



From a geological point of view clay is fully dealt with in Searle's 
The Natural History of Clay (Cambridge Science Manuals). We 
consider it here only so far as its connection with handwork. 


One of the necessary factors of good workable clay is water ; 
this water must be present primarily as chemically combined water. 
However dry the clay may be, provided it has not been subjected 
to fire, as in a kiln, so that the combined water has been driven off, 
it may be brought again into a plastic state, but if once this combined 
water has been expelled, no treatment of any kind whatever is 
able to restore its lost plasticity. 

Chemically combined water alone is not enough, even though 
its presence is so very essential. Mechanically combined water 
must also be there, and it is this latter factor which most chiefly 
concerns the student of clay modelling. 

Clay in good working condition should possess the following 
characteristics — 

(i) It should readily receive an impression, say, of the thumb. 
When the thumb is withdrawn there should be no trace of clay 
upon it, but it should come away quite clean. If otherwise, the 
clay is too soft, and hence, sticky. If an impression is not made 
without difficulty, the clay is obviously too hard. 

(ii) Grasping between finger and thumb, a piece should be easily 
twisted off or pulled away from the bulk. If it comes away too 
quickly the clay is said to be " short," a mark of " newness " and 
thorough kneading is required to correct it. 

(iii) Clay should be easily rolled between the palms without it 
breaking into pieces or crumbling up under such action. 

To retain this good working condition the clay requires constant 
supervision both {a) while modelling is in progress, and {b) during 

[a) Slightly damping with a sponge as required, and keeping the 
tips of fingers and thumb clean are necessary while working, but 
water may easily become a snare rather than a help unless due 
care be exercised. An excess will render the surface of the clay 
very soft and impossible to work, and not only so, but the clothes 
of the modeller may also be soiled. Water should be applied, then, 
with very great caution, and only by means of a well-squeezed-out 
sponge. The tips of the fingers must be kept clean, for the clay 


CLAY. i23 

is apt to lodge in the corrugations of the skin, forming a nucleus 
which continually gathers more and more clay to the detriment 
of the whole work, and in time the fingers become absolutely 
clogged. Grasping a portion of the sponge between fingers and 
thumb is sufficient to keep these parts clean. 

(b) In storage, the clay must be kept in a watertight, unrustable 
receptacle, and covered with damped cloths, well wrung out 
and tightly packed all over the exposed surface to prevent 

To restore clay which has hardened by drying, the following 
should be observed — 

(a) If only slightly hard, beat out the piece flat with a mallet ; 
then damp with a sponge, roll up again, and beat or " throw " 
the mass upon a table, repeating this kneading action again and 
again until the clay is sufficiently plastic. 

(b) If it should be found to be very hard, there is no recourse but 
to break it up into very small pieces, using a mallet or an iron 
rod, e.g., a piece of gas piping. Then sprinkle daily with water 
(not excessively), and cover with damped cloths. Each day turn 
the mass over with a stout stick, and again sprinkle. As soon as 
possible remove the whole in balls, well kneaded, and then stow 
away as before. 


The satisfactory storage of the clay is of prime importance, 
and will assist very materially to minimize the difficulties 
attendant upon the introduction of another medium in the school 

Wliere many or all of the classes in a school use clay, it 
is most advisable to have a separate bulk of clay for each class, and 
to store each lot separately ; otherwise what is everybody's work — 
the care of the material — will be found in practice to be nobody's 
responsibility, and much trouble and loss of valuable time will 
ensue as a consequence of finding the clay unfit for use. 

Whatever the storage receptacle may be, it should be removed 
after the lesson is over to a cool place, away from fireplace or 
radiator, and yet not at too great a distance from the classroom 
to necessitate much trouble when bringing it back again. 

Suitable storage bins may be classified as (1) zinc lined, (2) 
galvanized iron, (3) glazed earthenware. Whichever kind is used, 
it should be provided with a closely fitting lid, and before this is 
replaced in position, the clay should be covered carefully with 
damp cloths to exclude air and retard evaporation. This is very 

(1) Zinc Lined Bins. There are plenty of these upon the market, 
of varying capacity. For individual class use, one for half a hundred- 
weight of clay will be found a suitable size. But cheaper means, 

124 clav modelling for schools. 

though quite as effective, may be furnished by a handy man. A 
Tate's sugar box, sawn through the middle, and Hned with zinc, 
is easily adapted. A California Syrup of Figs box is very strongly 
made, and is just the size for a junior class of fifty pupils. In fact, 
any such strong box may be requisitioned for a few pence, and 
where the teacher does not feel himself able to line it with zinc 
(and zinc soldering is not the easiest of tasks) American cloth may 
be substituted. Of course this will not last as long as zinc, nor 
be so efficient. 

(2) Galvanized Iron Bins. These are both cheap, strong, and 
very efficient, and so are to be highly recommended. School 
furnishers supply them with a capacity of half a hundredweight. 

(3) Glazed Earthenware are effective, but much too heavy and 
cumbersome to move about. 

Storage and distribution for class purposes are problems which 
every teacher of modelhng has to solve for himself, having regard 
to the conditions under which he works, as for example, the amount 
of store room available and whether the lesson must be taken in 
the classroom under the conditions of an ordinary lesson or whether 
facilities exist for the modelling to be done in a room set apart 
for this purpose. 

As clay is received in the bulk from the contractors, it will be 
found to be a very convenient plan if the clay is immediately 
broken up into balls and so stowed away in some large receptacle 
in the store room. When being distributed among the separate 
clay bins of the various classes, the clay should again be made up 
into balls of such size as is found suitable to the requirements 
of the class and the ability of the average child of that class to 
handle. This will naturally vary from the lowest class to the 
senior, and a good working rule is to make the balls of a size 
somewhat larger than the clenched fist of the average child of that 

Again, the time when the lesson appears on the time table will 
assist much to do away with what might otherwise be very objec- 
tionable. Taking the lesson during the last hour of the afternoon 
session, and immediately after recess, will minimize the danger of 
clay soiling the person or the furniture. At such a time the children 
have no books to handle before dismissal, and if clay is dropped 
about fewer ()pi)(.rtunities occur for it to be trampled on the floor, 
or for the desks to be made dirty before the caretaker cleans up 
ready for the next day. 

As the class marches in from recreation the children should tile 
past the clay bin — one file to the right and the other to the left of 
the bin as it lies in a convenient position on the floor. Those filing 
to the right hold out the left hands, and those filing to the left the 
right ; each child takes up a ball of clay. Arrived in class they 
seat themselves, or take their stand round the modelling tables, 

CLAV. 125 

deposit the clay upon the modelhng boards previously distributed 
by the monitor. At the conclusion of the lesson this procedure 
is reversed. Each child rolls up all his clay into a ball, and at 
the word of command files past the clay bin and returns 
it. Then the monitors should take the cloths, rinse them, 
wring them out, and carefully pack them over the exposed surface 
of the clay. The lid is now securely replaced, and the clay bin 
removed to some cool, out-of-the-way corner of the building ready 
for the next lesson. 

If the right precautions be taken, the clay will invariably be 
found to keep in good condition for quite a long time ; but circum- 
stances will now and again demand special supervision, which if 
given, will spare the teacher considerable trouble, but if 
omitted, will cause much annoyance and a waste of valuable 

The rapidity with which clay loses its plasticity depends largely 
upon two factors, the season of the year and the character of the 
pupil's hands, both of these factors being again dependent, of 
course, upon temperature — the chief cause of the loss of moisture 
by evaporation. During the hot days of summer the clay may 
rapidly harden, whatever children are using it, but at every season, 
certain of them having hot, dry hands, will be found to be labouring 
under the disability of their clay being unworkable. 

When such circumstances are found to exist — and the teacher 
can readily detect this as he walks round the class — the children 
should be instructed to have their clay rolled into a ball upon the 
table, and not bring it out to be deposited in the bin when the class 
files past. School being over, the monitors should take these 
hard balls, pierce a fairly large and deep hole with a pointer thrust 
about three quarters of the way into the mass. This hole must 
then be filled with a few drops of water treated with a disinfectant 
(Sanitas or Izal), and the balls so treated either deposited on the 
top with the holes pointing upwards, or with the holes sealed 
up with a little moist clay. The cloths, a little damper than 
usual, may now be packed over the whole, and when next 
week's lesson comes round, the defect will probably have been 

Another method of dealing with a large bulk of clay which 
has hardened in use, is to get two of the biggest and strongest 
children of the class to flatten out each ball with a mallet, then 
slightly moisten the surface with a sponge, roll up the clay into a 
cylinder, hammer out again, and after a thorough kneading, finally 
roll up again into a sphere and deposit in the bin. The moisture 
so added will slowly percolate through the mass, while the damp 
cloths will be effective in keeping the outside in fit condition. 
But it is important to remember that excess of moisture is quite 
as bad as too little, for whereas in the latter case the clay is too hard 


to be moulded, in the former it is too soft to receive any lasting 
impression, perhaps even too sticky to be handled with any degree 
of comfort. 

Where there is a deficiency of moisture in the clay, it is said to 
be " short " ; this shows itself in working in frequent cracks, or 
even actual fracture, and then such a kneading process as has 
already been described must be resorted to. 

Busy Work for Nimble Fingers. Being a Complete 
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and Rendering of Colour, Harmony of Colour, Analytical Colour, and 
the Use of Nature are all considered. 

Simple Art Applied to Handwork. Vols. I. and II. 

In demy 8vo, cloth, 248 pp., with 208 illustrations in colour and 
black and white. Each 78. 6d. net. 

By H. A. Rankin and F. H. Brown, A.R.C.A. 

In these extremely interesting books the Author describes how the art 
work of the school may be linked with the handwork, to the obvious 


betterment of the art. By using the articles made in the handwork 
lesson as a basis, the decorative work of the scholars is made real and 
practical, not merely academic. The application of the arts of brush- 
work, stencilling, needlework, and lettering are all simply yet fully 
described with reference to the majority of the articles made in most 
handwork lessons. 

Manuscript Writing and Lettering. 

Foolscap 4to, 8^ in. by 6^ in. 5s. net. 

By An Educational Expert. 

A Handbook for Schools and Colleges sho\ving the Historical Develop- 
ment and Practical Application to Modern Handwriting of several 
Manuscript Styles derived from Ancient Roman Letters. Full}- 
illustrated, together with 8 collotype plates of writing from manu- 
scripts recommended as models for study. 

From Script to Cursive. 

In crown 8vo, limp cloth, 48 pp. Is. 6(1. net. 

By H. A. Rankin. 

The author, v.ho is an acknowledged authority on handwriting, 
outhnes most interestingly a method by which print-form writing may 
be used as a basis for the ordinarj' cursive style. 


Needlework for Student Teachers. 

In demy 8vo, cloth, 260 pp., with nearly 200 diagrams. 78. 6d. net. 

By Miss Amy K. Smith, Dipldmie of the London Institute for the 
Advancement oj Plain Needlework ; Specialist under the London County 
Council, and at the Day Training College, Moorfields ; Examiner in 
Dressmaking and Needlework to the City and Guilds of London Institute; 
late of St. Gabriel's College, Kennington, S. E. 

With Introduction by The Lady Wolverton. 

Gutting- Out for Student Teachers. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 260 pp., with over 360 diagrams. 8s. Gd. net. 
By Miss Amy K. Smith. 

With Introduction by The Countess of Carlisle. 
The most comprehensive book devoted exclusively to cutting-out 3'et 
published in this country. 

Practical Plain Needlework. Based on all the latest 
Circulars issued by the Board. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 212 pp., fully illustrated, with diagrams in 
two colours. 4s. net. 

By Annie R. Chamberlain, B.A. (Lond.), Dipldmie of the London 
Institute for the Advancement of Plain Needlework ; Needlework 
Instructress in the City of Nottingham Pupil Teachers' Centre. 


Blackboard Diagram Drawing for Teachers of 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, with 7 full-page coloured plates and nearly 
300 black-and-white illustrations and diagrams. 5s. net. 

By Ethel R. Hambridge, Trained Certificated Teacher; Art 
Teachers' Certificate ; Diplomee {Gold Seal) of (he Tondon Institute 
for the Advancement of Plain Needlework ; also of the N.T.S.C. in 
Millinery ; and in Dressmaking, Elementary and Advanced ; Teacher 
of Blackboard Diagram Drawing at Northampton Polytechnic Institute, 
Clerkenwell, E.C. 

The diagrams are carefully graded, beginning with the formation 
of simple stitches and culminating in detailed sketches of completed 
garments. This book is eminently adapted to the requirements of 
candidates preparing for the Blackboard Drawing Section of the 
Evening School Teachers' Certificate granted by the City and Guilds 
of London Institute. 

Notes of Lessons on Pattern Drafting. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 120 pp., with 35 full-page illustrations. 
2s. 6d. net. 

By Josephine Riley, Needlework Lecturer to the Teachers' Classes 
under the London County Council. 

A recognized system correlated with art and graduated for the 
Standards on Educational lines. It includes class lessons in Pattern 
Drafting, in cutting out in the material, in the making up of the 
garments according to the abihty of each class. 

Children's Garments. 

Foolscap 4to, 140 pp., 4 paper patterns, many illustrations. 7s. 6(1, net. 

By Emily Wallbank, Head of the Needlework and Dressmaking 
Department, The National I^raining School of Cookery and other 
Branches of Domestic Economy: and ^Marian Wallbank, Head of the 
N eedlcivork and Dressmaking Department, Training College of Domestic 
Science, Liverpool: Authors of " Dress Cutting and Making." 

Any one using this book will be helped to make a garment in any 
style and for a child of any age. A neat pocket containing four useful 
patterns is placed inside the back cover of the book. 

Knitting for Infants and Juniors. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 64 pp., with over 40 plates and other 
illustrations. 3s. net. 

By Ethel M. Dudley, L.L.A. 

With Foreword by Miss S. J. Hale, Principal of the Edge Hill 
Training College. 

Part I is entirely devoted to the work of Infants and Standard I, 
all patterns being based upon the ordinary plain knitting, or garter, 

Part II is more advanced, requiring the added knowledge of how to 
work a purl stitch, and is suitable for all classes of the Junior School. 


ifCnitting and Crochet Without Specimens. 
The Modem Book of School Knitting and Crochet. 

In foolscap 4lo, clolh, 204 pp., with upwards of 150 beautiful 
descriptive plates. 8s. 6(1. net. 

By Ellen P. Claydon and C. A. Claydon. 

Being a complete, detailed, aud graduated course of work for each 
class in a girls' school. 

This book aims at meeting in a practical manner the suggestions 
with regard to knitting made in the recently issued Report on the 
teaching of Needlework. It describes a large variety of articles, 
carefully graded in difificulty, for every class from Infants to 
Standard VII. 

Household Accounts and Management, 

or How to Plan and Regulate Expenditure. 

In crown 8vo, hnip cloth, 106 pp. lOd. net. 

By Helena Head, Principal of the School of Domestic Science, Liver- 
pool : Examiner in Domestic Science to the Manchester and Sheffield 
Education Committees and theLancashire and Cheshire Union of Institutes. 

Housecraft. In three books — Junior, Intermediate, and 


Junior aud lutorimHliate, each 72 pp., lOd. net. Senior, 102 pp.. 
Is, net. Each in crown 8vo, limp cloth. 
By the same Author. 

Mothercraft ; or, Infant Management. 

In crown 8vo, limp cloth, 126 pp. Is. net. 
By Mrs. Ellis H. Chadwick. 

The Principles of Health and Temperance. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 180 pp. 2s. net. 
By the same Author. 

Honiecraft in the Classroom. A Series of Lessons in 
"Home-making," in which the work is brought under 
the usual schoolroom conditions. 
In crown 8vo, cloth, 183 |)p., with 14 full-page plate illustrations. 
28. 6d. net. 

By Mary Hill, A.C.P., Ranmoor Council [University Demonstration) 
School, Sheffield. 

Practical Laundry Work. For Home and Scheol. 

In foolscap 4 to, cloth, 178 pp., with 151 photographic and other 
illustrations. 5s. net. 

By Louise Wetenhall, Teacher of Trade Laundry Work at the 
Borough Polytechnic Institute. 

Willi Illustrations by Ethel R. Hambridge. 

With a Foreword by Mrs. Burgwin. 


Domestic Work for Rural Schools. Being a 
Complete Course of Practical Instruction for Older Girls. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 258 pp., with 35 illustrations. .3s. net. 

By P. H. Arch, A.C.P., Head Master of Nettleham School, Lincoln ; 
Member of the County Lecture Staff, Kesieven Education Committee. 

With a Foreword by Christopher Turnor, Member of the Con- 
sultative Committee of the Board of Education ; Chairman of the Rttral 
Education Sub- Committee, Lindsey County Council. 

Household Management. A Handbook of Domestic 
Economy and Hygiene. 

Demy Svo, Si'J in. by 5^- in., 448 pp., cloth. 7s. 6(1. net. 

By E. Stoddart Eckford and M. S. Fitzgerald, Staff Teachers 
of the National School of Cookery and other Branches of Domestic 

Extract from Education. — " This book is certainly a household 
encyclopaedia to be recommended with confidence to students who 
are training to be teachers of domestic economy. . . ." 


Typical School Journeys. 

In crown Svo, cloth, 140 pp., with illustrations. 2s. 3d. net. 

ByG. G.Lewis, Head Master o Kentish Town Road L.C.C. School; 
and Member of the Executive of the School Nature Study Union. 

The Author is well known as one of the pioneers of the School 
Journey movement, and he has in this book described a series of open- 
air lessons which have been actually given to his scholars on Hampstead 
Heath and elsewhere. 

Longer School Journeys. 

In crown Svo, cloth, 216 pp., with nearly 100 diagrams and 
illustrations, including many full-page plates. 3s. 6(1. net. 

By the same Author. 

With Introduction by Professor J. Adams, M.A., B.Sc, LL.D. 

The Contemporary Review says: " Mr. Lewis, in this delightful book, 
shows the whole machinery of long school journeys, as well as all the 
physical, mental, moral, and spiritual good they do." 

In the Open Air. A Series of Outdoor Lessons in 
Arithmetic, Mensuration, Geometry, etc., for Primary and 

Secondary Schools. 

In crown Svo, cloth, 120 pp., with 14 full-page plate illustrations. 
28. 6d. net. 

By J. Eaton Feasey, Head Master of the Ranmoor Council School 
{University Primary Demonstration School) ; a Lecturer in Education 
in the University of Sheffield. 

A striking and original work which shows how the playground and 
the school garden can with great advantage be utilized for many 
lessons now given in crowded classrooms. 


In the Garden. A Series of Lessons in Nature Study 
— mainly Plant Life — to be given in the School Garden. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 140 pp., with 14 full-page plates and many 
other illustrations. 28. 

By the same- Author. 

Contains a complete course of outdoor lessons on Plant Life and 
other Nature Study subjects, on the lines advocated by the Board 
of Education in their Educational Pamphlet No. 12 and their Sug- 
gestions on Rural Education. The volume should be of the utmost 
value to all sc hools which have a garden, and to all teachers of Nature 

Garden and Playground Nature Study ; or, 
Observational Studies in Plant Life, Light, 
Heat, etc. For Primary and Secondary Schools. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 184 pp., with 65 illustrations. Ss. net. 

By the same Author. 

The Schoolmaster says: " The Author of In the Open Air and In 
the Garden can be congratulated on his third book. He travels a 
somewhat new road in Nature Study, and the result is refreshing. It is 
a well-written book, profusely and well ilhistrated with photograph 
and line drawings." 

A Scheme of Nature Study and How to Work It. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, with many illustrations by the Author. 
2s. 3d. net. 

By G. G. Lewis. 

In addition to the usual plant and animal life, considerable attention 
is devoted to Rock and Weather study as an assistance to intelligent 
geography teaching, and an attempt is made to bridge over the gap 
between "Nature Study" in the lower and "Elementary Science" 
in the upper classes. 

The Open- Air School. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 188 pp., with 50 illustrations. 2s. 6d. net. 

By Hugh Broughton, B.Sc. (Lond.). 

With Foreword by the Lady St. PIklier. 

This book describes how children may work, play, eat, and sleep 
entirely under open-air conditions. The Author has worked at the 
London County Council Shooters' Hill Open-air School since it was 
opened in 1908, the success of which School as an agency for making 
weakly children strong and at the sauie time giving them equipment 
for life has attracted world-wide attention, resulting in frequent 
inquiries as to how it is accomplished. This book will answer all 
these questions, and will be invaluable to members of education com- 
mittees, social reformers, and teachers. It is a complete guide to 
building, equipping, ana working an Open-air School. 



Notes of Lessons on History. In two volumes. 

In crown 8vo, cloth. Vol. I, 176 pp., 3s. net; Vol. II, 208 pp., 
3s. 6d. net. 

Vol. I deals with the Early Period, from British Times to 1603; 
and Vol. II mth the Modern Period, from 1603 to the Present Day. 

These Notes of Lessons can be conveniently used in connection with 
any of the schemes of history teaching now in general use, whether 
" periodic," " concentric," or " biographical." 

An Elementary History Source Book. 

In crown Svo, cloth, 208 pp. 3s. 6(1. 

By the Author of Pitman's Notes of Lessons on History. 

Consisting of extracts from the Original Authorities of English 
History. Intended for use in connection with Pitman's Notes of 
Lessons on History, or with any scheme of History teaching. 

Notes of Lessons on English. 

In crown Svo, cloth, 208 pp. 3s. 6d. net. 

A comprehensive series of lessons intended to assist teachers who 
wish to give systematic instruction in English Composition and 
Grammar. Composition is regarded by the Author not only as a 
very valuable exercise in mental training, but as the essential founda- 
tion of all sound language teaching. In these Notes of Lessons, 
prominence is given to the teaching of general rules for the correction 
of common errors in composition. 

Notes of Lessons on Hygiene and Temperance. 

Two volumes. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, each 180 pp. 4s. net. 

By Mrs. Ellis H. Chadwick. 

With an Introduction by Professor Sims Woodhead, M.A., M.D. 

These Notes of Lessons are based upon the scheme outlined in the 
Syllabus issued by the Board of Education. Few technical terms are 
used, and, where experiments are suggested, they are such as can be 
conducted in an ordinary classroom. 

Vol. I deals with the Hygiene of the Person, Food (including Air 
and Water), and Clothing; and Vol. 11 with the Home, Simple Ailments, 
Sick Nursing, and Mother-craft. 

Notes of Lessons on Arithmetic, Mensuration, 
and Practical Geometry. Two volumes. 

In crown Svo, cloth. Each 176 pp. 4s. net. 

By C. W. Crook, B.A., B.Sc, Head Master of the Higher Grade 
School, Wood Green, N. 

The Author has provided a series of suggestive lessons, by means of 
which the teacher may be enabled to secure the alertness in the pupil 
which is so properly insisted upon in the Suggestions to Teachers. 
The Metric System and Mensuration are treated very fully, and 
Practical Geometry, including graphs, is a feature of the book. Each 
lesson begins with oral work leading up to the subject of the lesson, 


which is next treated practically and, as far as possible, from the work 
of the class itself. After each lesson, suggestions are given as to 
various types of problems and other lessons. 

Notes of Lessons on Science. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 208 pp. 58. net. 

By Robert Bunting, Head Master of the "A eland" Higher 
Elementary School, London, N.W. 

The material of the book is distributed over five sections, the first 
dealing with physical measurements of a general character and 
progressive in arrangement. The last two consider various chemical 
and physical forces and their apphcation to industry. While the former 
sections are well adapted to the lower classes of any school, the latter 
would suit excellently the upper classes of a good school in an industrial 

Notes of Lessons on Music. Sol-fa Notation. 

In two volumes, wilh illustralions, exercises, and songs; each crown 
Svo, cloth. 

Vol. I, 188 pp. 3s. 6d. net. Vol. II, 208 pp. 38. 6d. net. 

Notes of Lessons on Music. Staff Notation. 

In two volumes, with illustrations, exercises, etc.; each crown Svo, 
cloth. Vol. I, 208 pp. 3s. 6d. not. Vol. II, 224 pp. 3s. 6d. net. 

By Edward Mason, Mus.Bac, F.E.I. S., L.T.C.L., F.T.S.C, Head 
Master of Rye Croft Council School, Newcastle-tinder- Lyme. 

These volumes are designed to constitute a complete and up-to-date 
work on the subject of Music in Elementary Schools. Generally 
speaking, they follow closely the lines of " The Suggestions." The 
work includes lessons on Methods of Teaching the various divisions 
of the subject in all grades from the infants upwards, lessons on 
systematic ear -training, and lessons on subjects pertaining to music 
culture. There are three chapters exclusively devoted to the study 
of Harmony. Copious examples and exercises are provided. The 
Board of Education syllabuses and list of songs are included for con- 
venient reference, and a section is devoted to the provision of specimen 
songs which are considered suited to the needs of the different classes. 

Teaching Composition. A Book of Modem Method, 
Practice, Suggestion, Experiment and Experience. 

In crown Svo, cloth, 212 pp., with illustrations. 4s. net. 

By J. Eaton Fkaskv, Head Mailer of the Ranmoor Council School 
(University Demonstration School), Sheffield. With an Introduction 
by J. A. Green, M.A., Professor of Education in the Ifniversity of 

Notes of Lessons on Geography. Two volumes. 

In crown Svo, i loth. Vol. I, 176 pp. 3s. net Vol. II, 216 pp. 
3s. 6d. net. 

By Lewis Marsh, M.A. 

The aim of these books is to indicate a method whereby geography 
may be taught in an educational and scientific manner. The Lessons 
are carefully graduated, each depending on those that precede it. 
The ground covered is sufficient to supply the whole geographical 
teaching of all seven standards of an elementary school. The scheme 


is a combination of those mentioned in the " Suggestions for Teachers," 
and is based on the Code of the Board of Education. 

Vol. I consists of Lessons on Elementary Notions, Plans and Maps, 
and the study of England and Wales. 

Vol. II contains the geography of Europe, with Scotland and Ireland. 

In the study of countries, the regional method is adopted. It is 
shown how the teacher can train his pupils to observe the physical 
features of a district, and to deduce from them the political and 
commercial conditions. 

A Practical Geography. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 180 pp., with 150 diagrams and illustrations. 
39. 6d. net. 

By Edwin J. Orford. With an Introduction by Colonel Sir T. H. 
HoLDiCH, K.C.M.G., K.C.I. E., C.B., Vice-President of the Royal 
Geographical Society. 

In this book, precise directions are given for conducting demonstra- 
tions, for constructing simple apparatus in wood and in cardboard, 
making observations and working out exercises; and for cases where 
observations cannot for any reason be made specimen figures and 
other data are supplied. 

Field Work for Schools. Being a Course of Instruc- 
tion in the Methods usually employed in Map-making. 
In crown Svo, cloth, 92 pp., with coloured frontispiece, and many 

diagrams and illustrations. 2s, net. 

By E. H. Harrison, B.Sc. (Lond.), L.C.P., Mathematical Master, 
Higher Elementary School, Urmston ; and C. A. Hunter, Higher 
Elementary School, Urmston. 

Tkis book is the result of several years' experience in developing a 
course of lessons in measurement and elementary map-making, which 
can be carried on in the open air. 

Observation Lessons in Botany. 

In foolscap 4to, 176 pp., with 42 pages of illustration. 3s. 6(1. net. 

By C. G. KiDDELL, B.A., F.L.S., sometime Lecturer in Nature Study 
and Science, under the Herts County Council ; and Science Master, 
Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Barnet. 

The object of this volume is to cultivate the children's powers of 
observation and inference; few scientific terms are introduced. 

Practical Object Lessons from the Plant World. 

In crown Svo, cloth ,172 pp., with 23 pages of illustrations. 3s. 6d. net. 

By Herbert J. Barnell. 

The Author has kept in mind that the correct method of procedure 
is to lead the scholars to make their own deductions from the 
observation of actual objects placed before them. 

Talks with Tinies. A Series of Lessons for the Babies, 
with Suggestions at the end of each Lesson for Correlated 
Lessons and Occupations. 
In crown Svo, cloth, 215 pp. 3s. 6(1. net. 

By Mrs. Alyce L. Sandford, Head Mistress of Rolls Road Council 
School, Camberwell ; late Mistress of Method at S. Marylebone P. T. 


Centre ; Lecturer on Theory oj Education at the National Society's 
School of Cookery. 

The book contains over 60 pages of illustrations, which can be 
easily drawn on the blackboard by the teacher, and instructions are 
given with each drawing for correlated work — Colouring, Perforating, 
Modelling, Stick-laying, Freehand and Frcc-arni Drawing, etc. 

A Year's Work with Mother Nature. An Easy 

Series of Correlated Nature Studies for Little Children, 
based on the Seasons. 
In foolscap 4to, cloth, 203 pp. Gs. net. 

By the same Author. With a Foreword by Lord Avebury. 
The book contains over 40 pages of illustrations suitable for drawing 
on the blackboard. The lessons have original songs with pianoforte 

A Second Year's Work with Mother Nature. 

Being another Series of Easy Correlated Nature Studies 
for Little Children, based on the Seasons. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 203 pp., with 44 pages of illustrations 
oS. net. 

By the same Author. With Foreword by Sir John Cockburn, 

The lessons have original songs with pianoforte accompaniment. 

Nature Notes and Notions. Being a Third Year's 
Work with Mother Nature. Suitable for Standards I, 
II, and III. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 204 pp., with about 40 pages of illustrations. 

By the same Author. With Foreword by Sir George Kekewich. 
38. 6d. net. 

This is a book of Nature Lessons written on the Hcrburtian plan, 
with suggested correlated applications. 

Ghats with the Chicks. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, with 40 pages of illustrations. 3s. net. 

By the same Author. 

This is a book of very simple little Nature lessons in the form of 
" Chats," being absolutely informal and having each as its basis the 
central idea or chief Nature thought of a Nursery Rhyme. 

Months and Melodies. An Entirely New Series of 
Original Stories, Songs, and Recitations, based on the 
months of the year. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 128 pp. 2s. 6(1. net. 

By Bessie Hawkins. Music by R. W. Hawkins. 

The book is arranged in three parts, the first containing a story for 
each month to be read or told to the children. Each story is followed 
by a suitable song set to taking and easy music. The Second Part 
consists of Nature Study recitations (also arranged to suit the months). 
llie Third Part is devoted to a miscellaneous collection of children's 
games and recitations of varying difficult}'. 


A Year of Happy Days. Being a Series of 44 original 
descriptive Nature Games and Songs, etc., with healthful 
exercises for Infants and Junior Classes. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, lOS pp. 2s. 6d. net. 

By Alice L. A. Hands. 

This is a delightful series of 44 descriptive Nature Games and 
Original Songs, with full Musical Accompaniment. The book is in 
six sections: " Sunset and Dawn," " Spring," " Summer," " Autumn," 
" Winter," and " Children's Own Games." 

A Cycle of Nature Songs. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 68 pp. 2s. net. 

By Florence Steane, F.N. CM., Head Mistress, Grange Street 
Council School, Burion-on- Trent. 

The songs are divided into four sections, each containing half-a- 
dozen songs for the respective seasons of the year. The airs are 
given in Sol-fa and Old Notation, with full musical accompaniment. 

A Child's Casquet of Song. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 108 pp. 3s. net. 

By Florence Steane, F.N.C.M., Head Mistress of Grange Street 
Girls' Council School, Burton-on-Trent ; Composer oj " A Cycle oj 
Nature Songs," etc. 

Teachers will welcome another delightful series of twenty-five songs 
for children, designed on similar lines to the same Author's successful 
volume, A Cycle of Nature Songs. 

Sky Songs. The Songs are in three parts, in both 

Notations, and have a full piano accompaniment. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 76 pp. 2s. 6(1. net. 

Words by Margaret Ashworth, Author of "A Child's Garland." 
Music by W. Irwin Hunt. 

These songs are principally intended for Junior Forms of Upper 
Schools, although some of the simpler ones, taken as solos, wiU be 
found both attractive and easy for older children in Kindergarten or 
Infant Schools. Written with an eye to simplicit5^ the songs are 
rather wide in scope, varying from a simple lyrical form to that of 
the plain ballad. 

Little Tunes for Little People. With Music in both 
Notations, and full accompaniment. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 32 pp.. Is. 6d. net. 

By Wilson Manhire. 

These little tunes are written specially for Infant Schools. There 
are thirty tunes in all, and these include all the popular nursery rhymes. 

' ' Golden Days. ' ' Being Stories based on Nursery Rhymes. 

With accom.panying Notes for Lessons, for Dramatization, 

and for Suitable Games ; together with Schemes for 

Correlative Expression Work and Co-operative Handv/ork. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 196 pp., -with 90 black-and-white illustrations. 
2s. 6d. net. 

By Queenie Clarke, Author of " Across the Border," etc. 


These little stories are the old nursery rhymes of our childhood put 
into concrete form and arranged in such a manner as to fit the various 
seasons of the year. 

Nature Stories. Illustrations for Class Use published 
separately in Packets. 6<1. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 152 pp., with 25 full-page outline drawings 
suitable for reproduction on the blackboard. 2s. 6d. net. 

By Louie Jesse, Head Mistress of Cogan Infants' School, Glamorgan. 

In writing these little stories, the object of the Author has been to 
raise and stimulate the interest of the little ones in the careful observa- 
tion of Plant and Animal Life around them, leading them to the 
fairyland of Nature through the gate of imagination. 

Across the Border. A Geography Story. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 180 pp., with 13 full-page plates and 77 black- 
and-white illustrations. 28. net. 

By QuEENiE Clarke. 

This is a geographical story, in which great prominence is given to 
the physical features of England and Wales, and these are illustrated 
by means of the Sand Tray. To each chapter is appended a full and 
complete scheme of expression work whereby the subject-matter is 
correlated \vith the other subjects of the school curriculum. This and 
the two succeeding volumes will be found especially useful in connection 
with the Board's Circttlar 833. 

Babyland Abroad. Being a Series of Geography Stories. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 192 pp., \vith nearlv 100 illustrations suitable 
for reproduction on the blackboard. 3s. 6d. net. 

By Louie Jesse. 

In Babyland Abroad, the little ones of England are introduced to 
the following babies: Ito of Japan, Mikissoq of Greenland, Teb of 
Jamaica, Olaf of Norway, Wang of China, Betje of Holland, Lona of 
Ceyioii, P>unu of Kaffir-land, Hassan of Arabia, the Piccaninny and 
the Wigwam baby, and many other fascinating little persons. A Special 
Correlation Scheme post free on application. 

Scholars' Books for use with the above, by the same Author, are 
pubhshed in five books, each in crown 8vo, limp cloth, 48 pp., illustrated. 
Is. net: 1, Two Black Babies; 2, Two White Babies; 3, Two Brown 
Babies; 4, Two Yellow Babies; 5, The Red Baby and His Cousin. 

Babyland in History. Being a Series of Stories 
concerning the leading Royal characters in English 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 171 pp., ^\•ith about 100 illustrations especially 
suitable for reproduction on the blackboard. 3s. 6(1. net. 

By the same Author. 

Beginning with the pre-historic Cave Baby, followed by the Welsh 
Baby, the Roman Baby, the Saxon and the Danish Baby, the stories 
lead on to the lives of some of the great heroes and heroines who 


figured so prominently in English History. The stories axe told in a 
simple informal manner, and the illustrations are simple and effective, 
and can be reproduced by teachers and children. A Special Correlation 
Scheme post free on application. 

Scholars' Books for use with the above, by the same Author, are 
published in five books, each in crown 8vo, limp cloth, 48 pp., illustrated. 
Is. net: 1, Babies of Long Ago; 2, Royal Babies of Long Ago; 3, Brave 
Boys of Long Ago; 4, Brave Girls of Long Ago; 5, Little Pilgrims of 
Long Ago. 

The Water Babies. Infant Teachers' Edition. 

In crown Svo, cloth, 158 pp., with 21 full pages of illustrative sketches 
for reproduction on the blackboard by Margaret Ashworth. 3s. net. 

By Charles Kingsley. 

Adapted and Re-told, with copious Natural History Notes, and a 
Scheme of Correlated Lessons and Handwork, by Winifred Howard. 

This book contains fourteen more or less self-contained Nature 
Stories re-told from Kingsley's Water Babies. Full and reliable notes 
are given upon the plants and animals mentioned. 

A Child's Garland. With i8 original Nature Stories and 
accompanying full-page illustrations, white on black ; and 
a similar number of original Nature Songs with full piano 
accompaniment, Lessons, Recitations, etc. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 222 pp. 4s. 6d. net. 

By Margaret Ashworth. With Music by W. Irwin Hunt. 

With 18 original Nature Stories and accompanying full-page illustra- 
tions, white on black, and a similar number of original Nature Songs 
with full piano accompaniment. Lessons, Recitations, etc. 

This book is primarily intended for those interested in Kindergarten 
work, and contains Nature Lessons, seasonally arranged, upon the 
following flowers and slurubs: (Spring), Primrose, Daisy, Cowslip, 
Violet; [Summer), Buttercup, Forget-me-not, Dandelion, Honeysuckle, 
Bluebell, Rose; (Autttmn), Reed, Heather, Autumn Leaves, Apple; 
(Winter), Grass, Hips and Haws, Holly, Snowdrop. 

Overheard in Fairyland ; or, The Peter Pan Tales. 

In crown Svo, cloth, 208 pp. 3s. 6(1. net. 

By Madge A. Bigham. With coloured illustrations by Ruth S. 

This very charming series of Nature Fairy Tales was inspired by 
Mr. Barrie's fascinating play, Peter Pan. 

Basic Stories. A Complete Connected Scheme of Work 
for Infants. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 184 pp., with 15 full-page plates. 3s. 6d. net. 

By Bertha Pugh, N.F.U., Head Mistress, Evelyn Street Council 
School, Warrington. With Foreword by George F. Johnson, Inspector 
of Handwork, Liverpool Education Committee. 

This book contains a complete suggestive Scheme of Work, suitable 
for Infants, based on literature; and the stories chosen are standard 
and are generally well known. A complete suggestive Handwork 


Scheme is also connected with the general scheme for each month, 
while ideas for group work in connection with the handwork are also 
given at the beginning of each month's work. 

Work Through Play. Being the training of the 
children of the Infants' Preparatory Class. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 100 pp., illustrated. 2s. 6d. net. 

B}' Katharina Schulze, Author of "Letter Games " and " Word- 
building Games." 

With Foreword by E. N. Wix, formerly H.M. Inspector of Schools. 

This book should prove of re?J value to Infants' Teachers, inasmuch 
as it show.s how the preparatory class in the Infants' School receives 
a most delightful training through the medium of games and " make 
believe." All subjects are skilfully handled and taught by means of 
games and self-help, and the children are trained to do as much as 
possible for themselves. 

Story Telling— VtQiat to Tell and How to Tell It. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 197 pp. 2s. 6d. net. 

By Edna Lyman. 

The book is intended for those who, untrained, are required to meet 
the present-day demand for stories, and are at a loss where to find 
material or what to select, and who are limited by small hbrary 

A Story o£ Infant Schools and Kindergartens. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 156 pp. 3s. 6(1. net. 

By ]Miss E. R. IMurray, of the Maria Grey Training College, 

This book supplies in a readable form what has not pre\"iously been 
within reach of the ordinary student, viz., an account of the Kinder- 
garten movement, combined with the story of the rise not only of 
our Infants' Schools, but of our system of national education. 

The Folk Dance Book. For Elementary Schools, 
Classroom, Playground, and Gymnasium. 

Size 8J in. by 11^ in., cloth, with illustrations and music. 5s. net. 

Compiled by C. Ward Crampton, j\I.D. 

The 43 graded dances of Dr. Ward Crampton's book consist of songs, 
music, and description, the melodies and accompanj'ing actions being 
gathered from primitive folk in manj- lands. 

The Festival Book ; or, May-day Pastime and 
the May-pole. Being Dances, Revels, and Musical 
Games for Playground, School, and College. 

Size 8 J in. by 1 1 i in., cloth, 85 pp., with many illustrations, diagrams, 
and music. 48. 6a. net. 

By Jeanette E. C. Lincoln. 

Plaj''S and Games for Indoors and Out. 

Tn demy 8vo, cloth, 254 pp., with illustrations. 3s. 6d. net. 

By Belle Ragnar Parsons. 

This volume, the fruit of much experience in schools, provides a 


copious repertory of games, at once instructive and truly recreative 
for children at all stages of development. Its object is to infuse a 
spirit of intelligent play into the regular gymnastic drill. 

Graded Gaines. Authorized Edition. 

In cloth, 84 pp., with illustrations and music. Is. lOd. net. 
By Marion Bromley Newton. 

Physical Exercises and Games. For Infants and 

In crown 8vo, limp cloth, 56 pp., illustrated. Is. 4d. net. 

By J. Lewis, Physical Instructor, Tottenham P.T. Centre; Author 
of " School Drill," " Drill Cards," etc. 

The Play Exercises are based on everyday scenes and occupations, 
and are full of movement; and can be done to musical accompaniment 
or without. 

School Games and Recreational Exercises. For 

use in Public Elementary Schools. 
In crown Svo, limp cloth, 62 pp., illustrated. Is. 4(1. net. 
By the same Author. 

This book gives over two hundred Games and variations classified 
according to ages. 

Letter Games for Infants. Based on Old English 

In crown Svo, cloth, 48 pp. la. 3d. net. 

By Katharina Schulze. 

A series of 30 little games, which wiU make the learning of the 
Alphabet both pleasurable and interesting. 

Word-Building Games. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 80 pp. Is. 6d. net. 

By the same Author. 

With a Foreword by Sir John Cockburn, K.C.M.G., M.D. 

This work sets out strikingly and clearly how handwork and play 
in the Infants' School can be combined with the elements of simple 
reading; it is, to quote Sir John Cockburn, " a welcome and appro- 
priate sequence to the Author's "Letter Games for Infants." The 
deUghts of making models in sand, clay-modeUing, drawing, picture 
conversations, singing, etc., are all introduced. 

Language and Sense-Training Games for Infants. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 56 pp. Is. 6d. net. 
By Louie Jesse, Author of "Nature Stories." 

This book contains 37 games suitable for Infants' Schools and 
Junior Standards. 

Number Plays and Games. Stepping-Stones to 
Visual and Observational Arithmetic. 

In crown Svo, cloth, 64 pp., illustrated. Is. 6d. net. 

By C. Struthers, Head Mistress, Deepdale Road Council School, 


Nature Games for the Little Ones. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 40 pp. 2s. net. 

By Ellen Green Haddon. With Music by Tom Pierce Cowling. 

This book is intended to be used in connection with the Nature 
Study Scheme, and the teacher will find that the Games will correlate 
and form a valuable addition to any syllabus. The 16 tunes are simple 
and " taking," and are by T. Pierce Cowling, the well-known and 
popular composer of children's songs. 

A Garden of Games. Being a Series of Educational 
and Recreational Games for Infants and Juniors. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 122 pp., containing 7 songs with piano 
accompaniment, and 7 full-page photographs. 4s. net. 

By Annie Ingham, Head Mistress, Batley Carr Infants' School, 
Dewsbury, Yorks. Music by John Fearnley. 

This series includes as many as 30 games, and is the result of careful 
study and long practice in the most up-to-date methods of Kindergarten 
teaching. The themes have been drawn from many sources, some 
mythical, others geographical; a few are introduced for the training 
of the senses on the Montessori principle, while others provide for the 
encouragement of Nature study. 

Singing Games. A Series of 28 original Songs and 
Games for Infants and Juniors. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 124 pp. Ss. 6d. net. 

By Tom Pierce Cowling, Composer of ' ' Nature Games for the Little 
Ones," etc. 

These games will be found rather out of " the beaten track," easy 
to teach and very effective, having been "tried and proven." They 
vary in length &nd difficulty, and contain no little fund of information 
given in a pleasant and informal manner. 

Evening Play Centres. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, illustrated. 3s. net. 

By J. L. Jordan, Superintendent of Play Centres to the Portsmouth 
Education Committee. 

The book is characterized by its essentially practical nature. The 
author's plans proved successful, and he describes them thoroughly, in 
the hope that they may also prove useful to others. In the summer 
it is anticipated that children will be taken into the fields, commons 
and pla^'grounds, and the outdoor part of the year's w^ork is by no 
means neglected. All those engaged in directing the play of numbers 
of children will find this book full of practical hints. 

New Object Lessons (for Teachers' use). 

Profusely illustrated with white line drawings. Per volume, 
2s. 6d. net. 

Vol. I. ANLMAL LIFE (191 pp.). By F. W. Hackwood. 
„ II. PLANT LIFE. Bv G. Bacon and R. Bunting. 
„ III. EARTH, AIR, AND SKY (223 pp.). By R. Bunting. 
„ IV. FOOD, CLOTHING, ETC. (224 pp). By R. Bunting. 

Each volume contains about 30 Lessons, a coloured frontispiece 
reproduced from a blackboard drawing, and 30 pages of white on black 
illustrations suitable for class teaching. 

The Teacher's Course of Elementary Science. 

By Frank Belton, B.Sc. 

In crown 8vo, 240 pp. 4s. 


The numerous illustrations and diagrams are a special feature. 
In crown 8vo, 220 pp. 3s. 


Admission Register. 

Strongly bound in cloth. lOs. 

New Attendance Register for Boys' or Girls' 

Class Teacher's Work Book and Syllabus. 

In foolscap folio, strongly bound. 4s. net. 
By J. E. Ellson and E. Bolus, B.A. 

Printed on excellent paper and bound in extra strong covers. By a 
simple arrangement, one entry of subjects serves for the whole year. 

Pitman's Ideal Syllabus, Progress, and Report 
Book. (Three Terms.) No. 2. 

4s. net. 

By J. E. Ellson. 

Pitman's Ideal Syllabus, Progress, and Report 
Book. (Two Terms.) No. 2a. 
10 in. by 15 in., 44 pp. 
By J. E. Ellson. 

Pitman's Ideal Syllabus, Progress, and Report 
Book for Infants' Schools. (Three Terms.) No. 3. 

4s. net. 

By the same Author. 

Pitman's Ideal Syllabus, Progress, and Report 
Book for Infants' Schools. (Two Terms.) No. 3a. 

10 in. by 15 in., 36 pp. 
By the same Author. 

Pitman's Evening School Record-Syllabus Book. 

2s. 3d. net. 



Paper Flower Making. A Kindergarten Occupation 
for Girls and Infants. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 74 pp., with 4 coloured plates and about 150 
illustrations, examples, etc. 28. net. 

By Miss F. E. Manchester, late Head Mistress, Council Infants' 
School, Central Hendon, N.W. 

Segmn and His Physiological Method of 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 314 pp. 53. 
By H. HoLMAN, M.A. 

Seguin's Method is adopted by Madame Montessori; and his theory 
is the most scientific, systematic, and practical one on Education of, 
and through, the Senses ever yet wTitten. 

Cane Weaving for Children ; or, An Educational 
Method of Hand Training. Nineteenth Edition. 

In foolscap 8vo, 40 pp. 8d. net. 

By Lucy R. Latter" late Assistant Superintendent of Method in 
Infant Schools under the late School Board for London. 

The Student's Froebel. 

In crown Svo. Part I 3s. net ; Part II 2s. 6d. net. 

By W. H. Herford, B.A. 

„ II. PRACTICE. 144 pp. 

The two parts together give a full exposition of Froebelian Prin- 
ciples and Methods, adapted from Froebel's Education of Man, and 
following the language of the original as far as possible. 

Part I has just been revised and improved \\-ith two valuable addi- 
tions: an Educational Note bv Professor Michael Sadler, M.A., 
LL.D.; and a short life of \V. H. Herford, by Professor C. H. 
Herford, Litt.D. 

Percentage Tables. 

In foolscap thin cardboard. Is. net. 
By Florence A. Yeldham, B.Sc. (Lond.). 

These tables are prepared especiallj^ for the use of those teachers 
who have a large number of marks to percentage. 

The Teacher's ABC. Being Ordinary Thoughts of an 
Ordinary Teacher in an Ordinary Schoolroom. 
In demy Svo, 84 pp., 6d. net; cloth, Is. net. 
By \Vm. H. Robinson. 

Dictionary of Educationists. Fourth Edition. 

In crown Svo, cloth gilt, 338 pp. 63. net. 
By the Rev. J. E. Roscoe. 

Complete Educational Catalogue and Infants' School Catalogue 
post free on application. 





This book is DUE on the last daie stamped below 


JUL 2 01949 

WAY 9 195C 

MAY 3 1195b 

NOVl 81952 
Dec 2 9 ^951 

MAR 2 6 1953 





3 1158 00691 M: 


AA 000 284 614 5